Studi Bioekologi Vektor Malaria di Daerah (Yang Mendapat Sertifikat) Eliminasi Malaria di Kabupaten Jembrana, Bengkalis dan Bulukumba

  • Riyani Setiyaningsih
Keywords: eliminasi, malaria, vektor

Abstract

Abstract

The target of malaria elimination in Indonesia is expected to be achieved in 2030. One of the activities to support malaria elimination is vector surveillance. Several districts in Indonesia have certificates of malaria, including Jembrana, Bali Province, Bulukumba, South Sulawesi Province, and Bengkalis, Riau Province. Analysis of the presence of malaria vectors and Plasmodium needs to be done for the potential occurances of malaria transmission in eliminated malaria areas. Bioecology study of malaria vectors were conducted to determine receptivity status and others risk factors and the potential for malaria transmission based on ecosystems in Jembrana, Bulukumba and Bengkalis districts. As part of national research of disease vector and reservoir (Rikhus Vektora), mosquitoes and larval field-collection methods, molecular plasmodium detection and blood meal analyses were carried out according Rikhus vektora guidelines. The result showed that Anopheles kochi and An. tesselatus were positive confirmed with Plasmodium falciparum by using PCR in Jembrana, Bali province, which were found in non-forest ecosystems near settlements and beaches near settlements. In addition, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles vagus, and Anopheles peditaeniatus were also positive confirmed with P. falciparum by using similar methods in Bulukumba, South Sulawesi province. An. barbirostris was found in forest ecosystems near settlement, Anopheles vagus was found in remote forest ecosystems of settlements and beaches near settlements, and Anopheles peditaenistus was found in non-forest ecosystems near settlements. While Anopheles sinensis was confirmed positive with P. falciparum in Bengkalis, Riau province. Jembrana, Bulukumba and Bengkalis districts are recognized as receptive areas and have potential for re-transmission of malaria. Vector surveillance and the implementation of approriate vector control and migration surveillance are needed to ascertain wheter the positive Anopheles with positives Plasmodium falciparum getting the parasites from imported cases or there has been a local transmission (indigenous) in these areas. This information is needed to prevent malaria re-transmission in the eliminated areas.

Keywords : elimination, malaria, vector

Abstrak

Target eliminasi malaria di Indonesia harapannya dapat dicapai tahun 2030. Salah satu kegiatan yang dilakukan untuk menunjang elimnasi malaria adalah surveilans vektor. Beberapa Kabupaten di Indonesia telah memperoleh serfikat eliminasi malaria diantaranya Kabupaten Jembrana Propinsi Bali, Bulukumba Propinsi Sulawesi Selatan, dan Bengkalis Propinsi Riau. Analisis keberadaan vektor dan patogen malaria perlu dilakukan untuk melihat potensi terjadinya penularan malaria kembali di daerah yang telah mendapatkan sertifikat eliminasi malaria. Studi bioekologi vektor malaria dilakukan untuk mengetahui status reseptivitas dan faktor risiko lainnya, serta potensi penularan malaria berbasis ekosistem di daerah tersebut. Sebagai bagian dari dari Riset khusus (rikhus) vektora, koleksi lapangan nyamuk dan jentik, prosedur deteksi melekuler plasmodium dan analisis pakan darah dilakukan dengan menggunakan pedoman Rikhus vektora. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa Anopheles kochi dan Anopheles tesselatus, yang masing-masing ditemukan di eksoistem non hutan dekat pemukiman dan pantai dekat pemukiman ditemukan positif mengandung Plasmodium falciparum di Kabupaten Jembrana, Bali. Sedangkan di Kabupaten Bulukumba, Sulawesi Selatan, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles vagus, dan Anopheles peditaeniatus merupakan spesies Anopheles yang terkonfirmasi positif mengandung P. falciparum. An. barbirostris ditemukan di ekosistem hutan dekat pemukiman, Anopheles vagus ditemukan di ekosistem hutan jauh pemukiman dan pantai dekat pemukiman, dan Anopheles peditaenistus ditemukan di ekosistem non hutan dekat pemukiman. Sedangkan Anopheles sinensis merupakan satu-satunya spesies Anopheles yang ditemukan positif mengandung P. falciparum di Kabupaten Bengkalis, Riau. Dari hasil studi menunjukkan, Kabupaten Jembrana, Bulukumba, dan Bengkalis merupakan daerah reseptif dan berpotensi terjadinya penularan kembali malaria. Surveilans vektor dan implementasi pengendalian vektor yang tepat serta surveilans migrasi secara ketat diperlukan untuk memastikan apakah Anopheles yang positif tersebut mendapatkan parasit P. falciparum dari kasus import ataukah memang sudah terjadi transmisi secara lokal (indigenous) di wilayah tersebut. Hal ini perlu dilakukan agar tidak terjadi penularan kembali malaria di daerah yang sudah tereliminasi tersebut.

Kata kunci: eliminasi, malaria, vektor

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Published
2020-01-07
How to Cite
1.
Setiyaningsih R. Studi Bioekologi Vektor Malaria di Daerah (Yang Mendapat Sertifikat) Eliminasi Malaria di Kabupaten Jembrana, Bengkalis dan Bulukumba. bpk [Internet]. 7Jan.2020 [cited 31May2020];47(4). Available from: http://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/bpk/article/view/2074
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