Dietary intake changes in adolescent girl after iron deficiency anemia diagnosis

  • Dominikus Raditya Atmaka
  • Windi Indah Fajar Ningsih Universitas Sriwijaya
  • Risnukathulistiwi Maghribi Universitas Gadjah Mada
Keywords: dietary changes, eating habit, adolescent girl, iron deficiency, anemia

Abstract

Latar Belakang: Defisiensi zat besi dapat terjadi karena rendahnya konsumsi makanan yang mengandung tinggi zat besi dan tingginya konsumsi makanan yang dapat menghambat absorpsi zat besi. Meningkatkan asupan zat gizi adalah salah satu cara paling efektif untuk memutus rantai permasalahan anemia defisiensi zat besi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mempelajari perubahan asupan gizi dan kesadaran akan kesehatan pada remaja perempuan sebelum dan setelah diagnosis anemia defisiensi besi.


Metode: Penelitian menggunakan desain kohort dengan subyek sebanyak 62 orang dari 2 Sekolah Menengah Pertama di Wates setelah dilakukan tes hemoglobin (metode cyanmethemoglobin) dan baru didiagnosis anemia defisiensi besi. Asupan energi, zat gizi makro (protein, lemak, karbohidrat), zat gizi mikro (zat besi, vitamin C, tembaga, zink, vitamin B12), faktor penghambat serapan (tanin, oksalat, fitat, serat), juga asupan, buah, sayur, kopi, dan teh diperoleh dengan semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ), 3 bulan sebelum dan 3 bulan setelah diagnosis anemia defisiensi besi. Data dihitung dengan Nutrisurvey® and STATA 12® menggunakan paired T-test.


Hasil: Tidak ada perubahan signifikan (p>0,05) pada asupan energi, protein, lemak, zink, vitamin B12, tembaga, serat, tanin, dan oksalat. Terdapat peningkatan signifikan asupan karbohidrat (p=0,0161), zat besi(p=0,0057), fitat (p=0,000), dan vitamin C (p=0,0017). Tidak ada perubahan signifikan rata-rata asupan buah, sayur, dan teh (p>0,05), tetapi konsumsi kopi lebih tinggi (p=0,0018).


Kesimpulan: Diagnosis anemia defisiensi besi mengarahkan pada perubahan asupan zat gizi. Subyek menjadi lebih sadar pada asupan zat gizi setelah diagnosis anemia defisiensi besi. Dibutuhkan usaha lebih untuk merubah asupan buah dan sayur yang rendah dan konsumsi teh dan kopi yang tinggi.


Kata Kunci: perubahan asupan gizi, kebiasaan makan, remaja perempuan, anemia defisiensi zat besi

 

Abstract


Background: Iron deficiency may happen because of low consumption of foods rich in bioavailable iron and high consumption of foods rich in inhibitors of iron absorption. Improving dietary intake is the most effective way to break the chain of iron deficiency anemia problems. This study aimed to study the changes in dietary intake and health awareness among adolescent girl before and after iron deficiency anemia diagnosis.


Method: Cohort study with 62 subjects from 2 junior high school in Wates after hemoglobin test (cyanmethemoglobin method) and were newly iron deficiency anemia diagnosed. Intake of energy, macronutrient (protein, fat, carbohydrate), micronutrient (iron, vitamin C, Copper, Zinc, vitamin B12), inhibitor factors (tannin, oxalate, phytate, fiber), also intake of fruit, vegetable, coffee, and tea, collected using semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQFFQ), 3 months before and 3 months after iron deficiency anemia diagnosis. Data calculated with Nutrisurvey® and STATA 12® for paired T-test.


Result: No significant changes (p>0,05) in energy, protein, fat, zinc, vitamin B12, copper, fiber, tannin, and oxalate intake. There were significant improvement in intake of carbohydrate (p=0,0161), iron (p=0,0057), phytate (p=0,000), and vitamin C (p=0,0017). No significant changes in mean intake of fruit, vegetable, and tea servings (p>0,05), but higher consumption of coffee (p=0,0018).


Conclusion: Iron deficiency anemia diagnosis resulted in dietary intake changes. Subjects were more aware of their dietary intake after iron deficiency anemia diagnosis. Small fruit and vegetable intake and high tea and coffee consumption suggested that efforts were needed to encourage dietary changes in these foods.


Keywords: dietary changes, eating habit, adolescent girl, iron deficiency anemia

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Published
2020-06-29
How to Cite
Atmaka, D., Ningsih, W., & Maghribi, R. (2020). Dietary intake changes in adolescent girl after iron deficiency anemia diagnosis. Health Science Journal of Indonesia, 11(1), 27-31. https://doi.org/10.22435/hsji.v11i1.3143
Section
Articles