Faktor Risiko Kejadian Hipertensi Pada Petani Wanita Usia 45 – 65 Tahun di Puskesmas Karangawen II Kabupaten Demak

  • Devana Doanaresta Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro
  • Enny Probosari Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro
  • Rachma Purwanti Departemen Ilmu Gizi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Diponegoro
Keywords: Hypertension, MAP, farmer, risk factor, Hipertensi, MAP, petani, faktor risiko

Abstract

Abstract

The prevalence of hypertension among farmers in Karangawen II Health Center was relatively high, with the most cases in women aged over 18 years. This research was conducted to determine the main risk factors for hypertension among women farmers aged 45-65 years in the working area of Karangawen II Health Center, Demak Regency. This research was a retrospective observational study with a case-control approach. Subjects were 35 female farmers aged 45-65 years who were hypertensive (cases) and 35 female farmers aged 45-65 years who were not hypertensive (control). The sample was selected with purposive sampling and control group selection according to age matching in the case group. MAP was obtained using mercury tensimeter. Bodyweight and height for BMI were measured by digital scales and microtoice. Percent of body fat was measured using BIA. Physical activity data obtained using IPAQ. Stress data were obtained using DASS-42. Sodium intake was obtained using 3x24 hour food recall. Data on family history of hypertension and smoking were obtained by interview. All data were then analyzed univariate, bivariate analysis using simple logistic regression tests, and multivariate analysis using multiple logistic regression tests. This study shows the risk factors for hypertension were sodium intake (p<0,001,OR=17,63), family history of hypertension (p=0,004,OR=8,1), and stress (p=0,006,OR=10,9), while non-risk factors were body mass index (p=0,21), percent body fat (p=0,22), smoking (p=0,56) and physical activity (p=0,38). The strong risk factors of hypertension in female farmers aged 45-65 years in the Karangawen II Health Center, Demak Regency was dietary sources of sodium, family history of hypertension, and stress.

Keywords: farmer, hypertension, MAP, risk factor

Abstrak

Prevalensi kejadian hipertensi pada petani di Puskesmas Karangawen II tergolong tinggi, dengan kasus terbanyak pada wanita berusia di atas 18 tahun. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui faktor risiko utama kejadian hipertensi pada petani wanita usia 45-65 tahun di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Karangawen II, Kabupaten Demak. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian observasional retrospektif dengan pendekatan case control. Subjek adalah 35 petani wanita usia 45-65 tahun yang hipertensi (kasus) dan 35 petani wanita usia 45-65 tahun yang tidak hipertensi (kontrol). Pemilihan sampel dengan purposive sampling dan pemilihan kelompok kontrol sesuai matching usia pada kelompok kasus. MAP didapat menggunakan tensimeter air raksa. BB dan TB untuk IMT diukur dengan timbangan digital dan mikrotoa. Persen lemak tubuh diukur menggunakan BIA. Data aktivitas fisik didapat menggunakan IPAQ. Data stres didapat menggunakan DASS-42. Asupan natrium didapat menggunakan food recal 3x24 jam. Data riwayat keluarga hipertensi dan merokok didapat dengan wawancara. Seluruh data kemudian dianalisis univariat, analisis bivariat menggunakan uji regresi logistik sederhana dan analisis multivariat menggunakan uji regresi logistik ganda. Hasil:Penelitian ini menunjukkan faktor risiko kejadian hipertensi yaitu asupan natrium (p<0,001,OR=17,63), riwayat keluarga hipertensi (p=0,004,OR=8,1), dan stres (p=0,006,OR=10,9), sedangkan faktor yang tidak berisiko adalah indeks masa tubuh (p=0,21), persen lemak tubuh (p=0,22), merokok (p=0,56) dan aktivitas fisik (p=0,38). Faktor risiko utama kejadian hipertensi pada petani wanita usia 45-65 tahun di Puskesmas Karangawen II Kabupaten Demak adalah asupan natrium, riwayat keluarga hipertensi, dan stres.

Kata kunci: petani, hipertensi, MAP, faktor risiko

References

Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas) 2018. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian RI; 2018.

Potter PA. Buku Ajar Fundamental Keperawatan: Konsep, Proses, Dan Praktik Volume 1. 4th ed. Jakarta: EGC; 2005.

Kundu RN, Biswas S, Das M. Mean Arterial Pressure Classification : A Better Tool for Statistical Interpretation Mean Arterial Pressure Classification : A Better Tool for Statistical Interpretation of Blood Pressure Related Risk Covariates. Sci Int. 2017;(January).

Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Rosner B, Hennekens CH, Gaziano JM, Manson JE, et al. Mean Arterial Pressure as Predictors of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Men. Am Hear Assoc J. 2000;

Low W, Lee Y, Samy AL. Non-Communicable diseases in the Asia-Pasific region: prevalence, risk factors, and community based prevention. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2015;28(1):20–6.

Kearney P, M W, K R, P M, PK W, J. H. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet. 2005;(365):217–23.

Widianto AA, Romdhoni MF, Karita D, Purbowati MR. The Silent Killer. J Unimus. :58–67.

Wangdi K, Jamtsho T. Risk factors for selfreported diabetes among Bhutanese adults : A nationally representative survey data analysis. PLoS One [Internet]. 2018;13(11):1–14. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206034.

Ghazali SM, Seman Z, Cheong KC, Hock LK, Manickam M, Kuay LK, et al. Sociodemographic factors associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adults. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(68):1–9.

Dinas Kesehatan Propinsi Jawa Tengah. Profil kesehatan Propinsi Jawa Tengah. Semarang : Dinas Kesehatan Propinsi Jawa Tengah; 2017.

Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Demak. Profil Kesehatan Kabupaten Demak Tahun 2016. Demak : Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Demak; 2016.

Ravi S, Bermudez OI, Harivanzan V, Ho K, Chui K, Vasudevan P, et al. Sodium Intake , Blood Pressure , and Dietary Sources of Sodium in an Adult South Indian Population. Ann Glob Heal. 2016;82(2):234–42.

Cook NR, Appel LJ, Whelton PK. Sodium Intake and All-Cause Mortality Over 20 Years in the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;68(15):1610–7.

Ranasinghe P, Cooray DN, Jayawardena R, Katulanda P. The influence of family history of Hypertension on disease prevalence and associated metabolic risk factors among Sri Lankan adults. BMC Public Heal J. 2015;1–9.

Spruill TM. Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Hypertension. Springer. 2010;(January):10–6.

Adair LS. Dramatic Rise in Overweight and Obesity in Adult Filipino Women and Risk of Hypertension. Obes Res. 2004;(8120).

Leung AA, Bushnik T, Hennessy D, Mcalister FA, Manuel DG. Risk factors for hypertension in Canada. Heal Reports. 2019;30(82):3–13.

Daştan İ, Erem A, Çetinkaya V. Urban and rural differences in hypertension risk factors in Turkey. Anatol J Cardiol. 2017;18:39–48.

Kongtip P, Nankongnab N, Tipayamongkholgul M. A Cross-Sectional Investigation of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Biomarkers among Conventional and Organic Farmers in Thailand. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(2590):1–13.

Rahajeng E, Tuminah S. Prevalensi Hipertensi dan Determinannya di Indonesia. Maj Kedokt Indon. 2007; 59(12):581–3;

Dasar-dasar Ilmu Penyakit Dalam. Buku Ajar Ilmu Penyakit Dalam Edisi V. Jakarta: Balai Penerbit FKUI; 2009.

Nisa AK. Gambaran Gaya Hidup Penderita Hipertensi Di Puskesmas Bonang 1 Demak [Skripsi]. Universitas Muhammadiyah; 2018.

Rinaldi SF, Mujianto B. Metodologi Penelitian dan Statistik. Jakarta : Kementrian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2017.

WHO. Public health Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363:157–63.

Ho-pham LT, Chi H, City M, Campbell L V, Nguyen T V. More of Percent Body Fat Cut off. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86(June):584–7.

Bergman P, Grjibovski AM, Hagströmer M, Sallis JF, Sjöström M. The association between health enchancing physical activity and neighbourhood environtment among Swedish adults - A population-based cross-sectional study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009;(May 2014).

Programme S. Depression , Anxiety and Stress Scales ( DASS-42 ). 2003.

Dahlan S. Statistik untuk Kedokteran dan Kesehatan: Deskriptif, Bivariat, dan Multivariat. Edisi 6. Cetakan Kedelapan. Jakarta: Epidemiologi Indonesia; 2019.

Nugrahanti SS, Ghofir A. Rerata Tekanan Arteri Lebih Dari 145 Mmhg Pada Saat Masuk Rumah Sakit Sebagai Prediktor Prognosis Kematian 7 Hari Pada Pasien Stroke Hemoragik. Damianus J Med. 2011;10:1–7.

Angelina R. Profil Mean Arterial Pressure dan Tekanan Darah pada Pasien Hipertensi Krisis dengan Kombinasi Amlodipin Mean Arterial Pressure and Blood Pressure Profile in Hypertensive Crises Patients with Amlodipine Therapy Combination. J Farm Klin Indones. 2018;7(3).

Forman JP, Scheven L, Jong PE De, Bakker SJL, Curhan GC, Gansevoort RT, et al. Association Between Sodium Intake and Change in Uric Acid , Urine Albumin Excretion , and the Risk of Developing Hypertension. CIRCULATIONAHA. 2012;3108–16.

Asgary R, Galson S, Shankar H, Brien CO, Arole S. Hypertension , pre-hypertension , and associated risk factors in a subsistent farmer community in remote rural central India. J Public Heal. 2013;21:251–8.

Nuraini B. Risk factors of hypertension. J Major. 2015;4:10–9.

Bojar I, Humeniuk E, Owoc A, Wierzba W. Original Articles Exposing Women To Workplace Stress Factors As A Risk Factor. Ann Agric Env Med. 2011;18(March):175–82.

Grotto I, Huerta M, Sharabi Y. Hypertension and socioeconomic status. Curr Opin Cardiol J.

Rahman M, Zaman MM, Yasmine J, Jalil I, Ham C, Ahsan N, et al. Prevalence , treatment patterns , and risk factors of hypertension and pre-hypertension among Bangladeshi adults. J Hum Hypertens [Internet]. 2018;334–48. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-017-0018-x.

Shirasawa T, Ochiai H, Yoshimoto T, Nagahama S, Kobayashi M, Ohtsu I, et al. Associations between normal weight central obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese middle-aged adults : a cross-sectional study. J Heal Popul Nutr. 2019;5:38–46.

Ahmad R, Rahman S, Zaman F, Jan S. Percent Body Fat And Its Relationship With Obesity And Hypertension In Adult Population Of Mingora Swat. Gomal J Med Sci. 2011;9(1):9– 12.

Masound M M, Arash E, Farin K, Dkk. Prevalence, awereness and risk factors of hypertension in a large cohort of Iranian adult population. J Hypertens. 2014;31(7):1364–71.

Barraclough S. Women and tobacco in Indonesia. La Trobe J. 1999;327–32.

Khan RJ, Stewart CP, Christian P, Schulze KJ, Wu L, Leclerq SC, et al. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence and risk factors for hypertension in rural Nepali women. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2013;13(1):1. Available from: BMC Public Health

Rukmi S. Tobacco Use and Adolescents in Indonesia : Narrative Review of Determinants. Knowl E. 2019;2019:69–84.

Published
2020-07-27
How to Cite
1.
Doanaresta D, Probosari E, Purwanti R. Faktor Risiko Kejadian Hipertensi Pada Petani Wanita Usia 45 – 65 Tahun di Puskesmas Karangawen II Kabupaten Demak. bpk [Internet]. 27Jul.2020 [cited 14Aug.2020];48(1). Available from: https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/bpk/article/view/2664
Section
Articles