Religiositas Dan Kelengkapan Imunisasi Dasar Pada Anak

  • Asep Kusnali NIHRD
  • Teguh Dartanto MPKP UI
Keywords: basic immunization, religiosity


Information on the absence of basic immunization due to religious reasons and the general overview of immunization coverage among religious believers in Indonesia is still limited. This study aims to examine the relationship between parental religiosity and basic immunization status on children because there are still many children who are not fully immunized in Indonesia. This study used cross-sectional data of the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) 2007 and 2014 with the unit of analysis for families having children aged 1-5 years. Our estimations using ordered logistic regression confirm that there is a relationship between religiosity on the parents' decision to perform basic immunization on their children. The differences in religiosity patterns in 2007 and 2014 illustrate changes in individual religious behavior towards the basic immunization program. These changes occur through religious social support.


Informasi tidak dilakukannya imunisasi dasar karena alasan agama masih terbatas dan gambaran cakupan imunisasi di antara pemeluk agama di Indonesia secara aktual belum dapat diketahui. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan hubungan antara religiositas orang tua dengan status imunisasi dasar pada anak dikarenakan masih banyaknya anak yang tidak diberikan imunisasi secara lengkap di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional dengan sumber data Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) Tahun 2007 dan 2014 dengan unit analisis keluarga yang memiliki anak usia 1-5 tahun dan dianalisis menggunakan regresi ordered logistic. Hasil analisis menunjukkan adanya hubungan antara religiositas terhadap keputusan orang tua untuk melakukan imunisasi dasar pada anaknya. Perbedaan pola religiositas tahun 2007 dan 2014 menggambarkan adanya perubahan perilaku beragama individu terhadap program imunisasi dasar. Perubahan tersebut dapat terjadi melalui dukungan sosial keagamaan.


Abolghasem-Gorji, H., Bathaei, S. A., Shakeri, K., Heidari, M., & Asayesh, H. (2017). The Effect of Religiosity on Quality of Life in Muslim Patients with Heart Failure: A Study in Qom, the Religious Capital of Iran. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 20(3), 217–228.

Addini, A. (2019). Fenomena Gerakan Hijrah di Kalangan Pemuda Muslim Sebagai Mode Sosial. Journal of Islamic Civilization, 1(2), 109–118.

Adebiyi, F. (2013). Determinants of Full Child Immunization Among 12-23 Months Old in Nigeria. University of The Witwatersrand.

Agresti, A. (2002). Categorical Data Analysis (Second). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Agresti, A. (2019). An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis (Third). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ahmed, A., Lee, K. S., Bukhsh, A., Al-worafi, Y. M., Sarker, M. R., Ming, L. C., & Khan, T. M. (2018). Outbreak of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in Muslim Majority Countries. Journal of Infection and Public Health, 11, 153–155.

Aritonang, M. S., & Parlina, I. (2014). MUI, govt wrangle over halal certification. Retrieved from over-halal-certification.htm

Asser, S. M., & Swan, R. (1998). Child fatalities from religion-motivated medical neglect. Pediatrics, 101(4 I), 625–629.

Brewer, G., Robinson, S., Sumra, A., Tatsi, E., & Gire, N. (2015). The Influence of Religious Coping and Religious Social Support on Health Behaviour, Health Status and Health Attitudes in a British Christian Sample. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(6), 2225–2234.

Buttenheim, A. M., & Asch, D. A. (2013). Behavioral economics: The key to closing the gap on maternal, newborn and child survival for millennium development goals 4 and 5? Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17(4), 581–585.

Clarke, S., Giubilini, A., & Walker, M. J. (2016). Conscientious Objection to Vaccination. Bioethics, 00(00), 1–7.

Einstein, M. (2008). Brands of Faith: Marketing Religion in a Commercial Age. New York: Routledge.

Ellison, C. G., & Levin, J. S. (1998). The Religion-Health Connection: Evidence, Theory, and Future Directions. Health Education & Behavior, 25(6), 700–720.

Fitri, R. N., & Jayanti, I. R. (2020). Fenomena Seleb Hijrah: Tendensi Ekslusivisme dan Kemunculan Kelompok Sosial Baru. MUHARRIK: Jurnal Dakwah Dan Sosial, 3(01), 1–17.

Gaduh, A. (2012). Uniter or Divider? Religion and Social Cooperation: Evidence from Indonesia. University of Southern California. University of Southern California.

Grabenstein, J. D. (2013). What the World’s religions teach, applied to vaccines and immune globulins. Vaccine, 31(16), 2011–2023.

Hagan, D., & Phethlu, D. R. (2016). Determinants of Parents’ Decisions on Childhood Immunisations at Kumasi Metropolis in Ghana. Curationis, 39(1), 1–7.

Hak, E., Schönbeck, Y., Melker, H. D., Essen, G. A. V., & Sanders, E. A. M. (2005). Negative attitude of highly educated parents and health care workers towards future vaccinations in the Dutch childhood vaccination program. Vaccine, 23(24), 3103–3107. vaccine.2005.01.074

Hall, K., Pinnick, D., Fix, N., Jansen, R., Gold, A., & Carson, P. (2016). Immunization and Exemption Policies and Practices in North Dakota: A Comprehensive Review and Recommendations for Improvement. North Dakota.

Harvey, A. (2018, January 15). Islamic anti-vaxxers undermine efforts to prevent diphtheria outbreak in Indonesia - ABC News. Retrieved August 29, 2020, from

Hidayatullah, T. A. (2016). An Explanatory Study of Health Policy Agenda Setting in Indonesian Immunisation Policy for Religious Anti-Vaccination. Flinders University.

Hill, P. C., & Hood, R. W. (1999). Measures of Religiosity. (P. C. Hill & R. W. Hood, Eds.). Birmingham: Religious Education Press Birmingham.

Holt, C. L., Clark, E. M., Debnam, K. J., & Roth, D. L. (2014). Religion and health in African Americans: The role of religious coping. American Journal of Health Behavior, 38(2), 190–199.

Holt, C. L., Roth, D. L., Huang, J., & Clark, E. M. (2018). Role of religious social support in longitudinal relationships between religiosity and health-related outcomes in African Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 41(1), 62–73.

Hussain, A., Ali, S., Ahmed, M., & Hussain, S. (2018). The Anti-vaccination Movement: A Regression in Modern Medicine. Cureus, 10(7).

Imdad, A., Tserenpuntsag, B., Blog, D. S., Halsey, N. A., Easton, D. E., & Shaw, J. (2013). Religious Exemptions for Immunization and Risk of Pertussis in New York State, 2000-2011. Pediatrics, 132(1), 37–43.

Kailani, N., & Sunarwoto. (2019). Televangelisme Islam Dalam Lanskap Otoritas Keagamaan Baru. In Ulama dan Negara Bangsa: Membaca Masa Depan Islam Politik di Indonesia. Yogyakarta: PusPIDeP.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2014). Laporan Penelitian: Riskesdas Tahun 2013. Jakarta.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2019a). Laporan Penelitian Riset Kesehatan Dasar Tahun 2018. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Badan Litbangkes.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. (2019b). Profil Kesehatan Indonesia Tahun 2018. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI.

Koenig, H. G. (2000). The Healing Connection: The Story a Physician’s Search for Link between Faith and Health. Philadelphia & London: Templeton Foundation Press.

Koenig, H. G., & Al Shohaib, S. (2014). Health and Well-Being in Islamic Societies: Background, Research, and Applications. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Koenig, H. G., & Cohen, H. J. (2002). The link Between Religion and Health: Psychoneuroimmunology and the Faith Factor. New York: Oxford University Press.

Krause, N., Ellison, C. G., Shaw, B. A., Marcum, J. P., & Boardman, J. D. (2001). Church-Based Social Support and Religious Coping. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(4), 637–656.

Kumampung, D. R. (2017, June 15). Ini Jawaban Oki Setiana Dewi tentang Kabar Anti-Vaksin. Retrieved September 3, 2020, from

Le, D., Holt, C. L., Hosack, D. P., Huang, J., & Clark, E. M. (2016). Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans. Journal of Religion and Health, 55(4), 1449–1460.

Linnemayr, S., & Stecher, C. (2015). Behavioral Economics Matters for HIV Research: The Impact of Behavioral Biases on Adherence to Antiretrovirals (ARVs). AIDS and Behavior, 19(11), 2069–2075.

Majalah Tempo. (2017, August 21). Bahaya di Balik Penolakan Vaksin - Kesehatan - Retrieved September 3, 2020, from

Martinez-Bravo, M., & Stegmann, A. (2019). In Vaccines We Trust? The Effects of the CIA’s Vaccine Ruse on Immunization in Pakistan * (No. wp2017_1713).

Muallifah, A. Y. (2018). Mengurai Hadis Tahnik dan Gerakan Anti Vaksin. Jurnal Living Hadis, 2(2), 253.

Muhsen, K., El-hai, R. A., Amit-aharon, A., Nehama, H., Gondia, M., Davidovitch, N., … Cohen, D. (2012). Risk factors of underutilization of childhood immunizations in ultraorthodox Jewish communities in Israel despite high access to health care services. Vaccine, 30(12), 2109–2115.

Mukungwa, T. (2015). Factors Associated with full Immunization Coverage amongst children aged 12 – 23 months in Zimbabwe. African Population Studies, 29(2), 1761–1774.

Musahadah, Z. S., & Triyono, S. (2019). Fenomena Hijrah Di Indonesia: Konten Persuasif Dalam Instagram. RETORIKA: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Dan Pengajarannya, 12(2), 117.

Natan, M. Ben, Aharon, O., Palickshivili, S., & Gurman, V. (2011). Attitude of Israeli Mothers With Vaccination of Their Daughters Against Human Papilloma Virus. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 26(1), 70–77.

Oman, D. (2018). Why Religion and Spirituality Matter for Public Health: Evidence, Implications and Resources. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

Oman, D., & Thoresen, C. E. (2002). “Does religion cause health?”: Differing interpretations and diverse meanings. Journal of Health Psychology, 7(4), 365–380.

Padela, A. I. (2010). Public Health Measures & Individualized decision making : The Confluence of H1N1 Vaccine and Islamic Bioethics. Human Vaccines, 6(9), 754–756.

Padela, A. I., Furber, S. W., Kholwadia, M. A., & Moosa, E. (2014). Dire necessity and transformation: Entry-points for modern science in islamic bioethical assessment of porcine products in vaccines. Bioethics, 28(2), 59–66.

Parlina, I. (2014). Postpone Halal Bill deliberation: Health Minister. Retrieved December 6, 2020, from deliberation-health-minister.html

Prawira, A. E. (2017, June 14). Bahaya untuk Indonesia Bila Banyak Artis yang Antivaksin - Health Retrieved September 1, 2020, from

Rahman, A., Reza, A. A. S., Bhuiyan, B. A., Alam, N., Dasgupta, S. K., Mostari, S., & Anwar, I. (2018). Equity and Determinants of Routine Child Immunisation Programme Among Tribal and non-Tribal Populations in Rural Tangail Subdistrict, Bangladesh: A Cohort Study. BMJ Open, 8(10), 1–7.

Ruijs, W. L. M., Hautvast, J. L. A., Ansem, W. J. C. van, IJzendoorn, G. van, Velden, K. van der, & Hulscher, M. E. J. L. (2012). How orthodox Protestant parents decide on the vaccination of their children: a qualitative study. In Acceptance of Vaccination among Orthodox Protestants in The Netherlands. Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre.

Sanou, A., Simboro, S., Kouyaté, B., Dugas, M., Graham, J., & Bibeau, G. (2009). Assessment of factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months : a cross-sectional study in Nouna district , Burkina Faso. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 9(1), 1–15.

Shrivastwa, N., Wagner, A. L., & Boulton, M. L. (2019). Analysis of State-Specific Differences in Childhood Vaccination Coverage in Rural India. Vaccines, 7(24), 1–11.

Sundoro, J., Sulaiman, A., Purwadianto, A., & Wasisto, B. (2018). Kampanye Anti-Vaksin oleh Seorang Dokter, Apakah Melanggar Etik? Jurnal Etika Kedokteran Indonesia, 2(1), 1.

Sutter, R. W., Markowitz, L. E., Bennetch, J. M., Morris, W., Zell, E. R., Preblud, S. R., … Zell, E. R. (1991). Measles among the Amish: A Comparative Study of Measles Severity in Primary and Secondary Cases in Households. The Journal of Infectious Disease, 163(1), 12–16.

Suwarni, Y. T. (2010). No Halal Vaccine Yet , Top Pharmacist Says. The Jakarta Post.

Tefera, Y., Wagner, A., Mekonen, E., Carlson, B., & Boulton, M. (2018). Predictors and Barriers to Full Vaccination among Children in Ethiopia. Vaccines, 6(2), 22.