Autentikasi Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Pegagan) dan Adulterannya Berdasarkan Karakter Makroskopis, Mikroskopis, dan Profil Kimia

  • Anshary Maruzy Balai Besar Litbang Tanaman Obat dan Obat Tradisional
  • Mery Budiarti Balai Besar Litbang Tanaman Obat dan Obat Tradisional
  • Dyah Subositi Balai Besar Litbang Tanaman Obat dan Obat Tradisional
Keywords: Authentication, Centella asiatica, Adulterant

Abstract

Pegagan or Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. empirically used as medicinal plant and scientifically can be used as antihypertension based on the results of the Jamu Saintification. Raw materials from C. asiatica have the potential to occur adulteration or incorrect use of plants species. There are two species of plants that have the potential to become adulterants of C. asiatica, namely Hydrocotyle verticillata and Merremia emarginata. Thus, the purpose of this study is to authenticate from Pegagan by comparing the macroscopic, microscopic, and chemical profiles of C. asiatica, H. verticillata, and M. emarginata. The method of data collection is done by purposive sampling using form intruments to record macroscopic and microscopic characters, while the chemical profiles are tested using thin layer chromatography methods to determine the content of asiaticosides in both potential adulterants species. The research was conducted at three sampling points: Central Java (Tawangmangu), West Java (Bogor), and East Java (Malang), while for laboratory research activities carried out at B2P2TOOT, Tawangmangu. The results showed macroscopically unique and easy distinguishing characters between C. asiatica and potential adulterant species H. verticillata is a leaf shape, whereas C. asiatica with M. emarginata are leaf-type appearance characters. The character of the simplicia leaf shape between C. asiatica and H. verticillata can be a distinct differentiator characters. Anatomical characters and powder fragments that can be used as a differentiator characters between C. asiatica and H. verticillata are the presence of pith on the stalk and stolon, the type of stomata, and the presence of trichomes. Authentication of simplicia powder of H. verticillata as an adulterant potential of C. asiatica with TLC, can be easily known by the absence of asiaticosides in these simplicia so that H. verticillata cannot be a substitute species for C. asiatica

References

Goltenboth F, Timotius K, Po Milan P, Margraf J, editors. Ecology of insular Southeast Asia: The Indonesian Archipelago. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2006.

Elfahmi, Woerdenbag HJ, Kayser O. Jamu: Indonesian traditional herbal medicine towards rational phytopharmacological use. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 2014 June;2(4):51-73.

Suhendang E. Pengantar ilmu kehutanan. Bogor: IPB Press; 2002.

Backer, C. A. and Brink VB. Flora of Java (Spermatophyte only): vol.II. Groningen: N.V.P. Noordhoff; 1963.

Hargono D, Lastari P, Astuti Y, Van den Bergh MH. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. [Internet]. PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation. 1999; 190-4 [dikutip 10 November 2016]. . Tersedia pada: http://proseanet.org/prosea/eprosea_ detail.php?frt=&id=68

Kriswiyanti E, Junitha IK, Sri Kentjonowati E, Darsini N, Setyawati I. Inventarisasi bahan obat tradisional di Kecamatan Kintamani, Kabupaten Bangli, Bali. Seminar Nasional HUT Kebun Raya Cibodas Ke-159. 2011; 108-12.

Due R. Etnobotani tumbuhan obat Suku Dayak Pesaguan dan implementasinya dalam pembuatan flash card biodiversitas. Universitas Tanjungpura; 2013;7-10.

Wulandari RA, Azrianingsih R. Etnobotani jamu gendong berdasarkan persepsi produsen jamu gendong di Desa Karangrejo, Kecamatan Kromengan, Kabupaten Malang. Biotropika. 2014;2(4):198-202.

Belwal T, Andola HC, Atanassova MS, Joshi B, Suyal R, Thakur S, et al. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica). In: Nabavi SM, Silva AS, editor. Nonvitamin and nonmineral nutritional supplements. London: Elsevier Inc.; 2019;p. 265-75.

Omar N, Lokanathan Y, Mohd Razi ZR, Bt Haji Idrus R. The effects of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban on neural differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. BMC Complementary Alternative Medicine. 2019;19(1):1-15.

Wannasarit S, Puttarak P, Kaewkroek K, Wiwattanapatapee R. Strategies for improving healing of the gastric epithelium using oral solid dispersions loaded with pentacyclic triterpene–rich Centella extract. AAPS Pharmaceutical Science Technology. 2019;20(7):277.

Camacho-Alonso F, Torralba-Ruiz MR, García-Carrillo N, Lacal-Luján J, Martínez-Díaz F, Sánchez-Siles M. Effects of topical applications of porcine acellular urinary bladder matrix and Centella asiatica extract on oral wound healing in a rat model. Clinical Oral Investigations. 2019;23(5):2083–95.

Harun NH, Septama AW, Wan Ahmad WAN, Suppian R. The potential of Centella asiatica (Linn.) Urban as an anti-microbial and immunomodulator agent: A Review . Natural Product Sciences. 2019;25(2):92.

Jin SG, Kim KS, Yousaf AM, Kim DW, Jang SW, Son MW, et al. Mechanical properties and in vivo healing evaluation of a novel Centella asiatica-loaded hydrocolloid wound dressing. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 2015;490(1-2):240-7.

Mariska E, Sitorus TD, Rachman JA. Effect of Centella asiatica leaves on gastric ulcer in rats. Althea Medical Journal. 2015;2(1):114-8.

Gray NE, Harris CJ, Quinn JF, Soumyanath A. Centella asiatica modulates antioxidant and mitochondrial pathways and improves cognitive function in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016;180:78-86.

Triyono A, Zulkarnain Z, Mana TA. Studi klinis ramuan jamu antihipertensi pada pasien hipertensi derajat I. Jurnal Kefarmasian Indonesia. 2018;8(1):17-25.

Triyono A, Ridha P, Ardianto D. Uji klinik khasiat sediaan rebusan ramuan jamu hipertensi dibanding seduhan jamu hipertensi (Clinical trial the efficacy of boiled hypertension herbs compared with steeped hypertension herbs). Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia. 2018;16(1):78-85.

Upton R, Graff A, Jolliffe G, Länger R, Williamson E, editors American herbal pharmacopoeia: Botanical pharmacognosy. microscopic characterization of botanical medicines. Boca Raton: CRC Press;2011.

Mansur M. Merremia emarginata (Burm.f.) Hallier f. [Internet]. PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation. 2001 [dikutip 10 November 2016]. Tersedia pada: http://proseanet.org/prosea/eprosea_detail.php?frt=&id=1191

Pramono S dan D. Ajiastuti. Standardisasi ekstrak herba pegagan (Centella asiatica. (L.). Urban) berdasarkan kadar asiatikosida secara KLT-densitometri densitometric method. Majalah Farmasi Indonesia. 2004;15(3):118-23.

Mulyani S. Anatomi tumbuhan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius; 2006.

Braz R, Wolf LG, Lopes GC, De JCP. Quality control and TLC profile data on selected plant species commonly found in the Brazilian market. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognocy. 2012;22(5):1111-8.

Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2005;4(7):685-88.

Hashim P, Sidek H, Helan MHM, Sabery A, Palanisamy UD, Ilham M. Triterpene composition and bioactivities of Centella asiatica. Molecules. 2011;16(2):1310-22.

Bandara MS, Lee EL, Thomas JE. Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica L.); An under-utilized herb. The Americas Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology. 2011;5(2):20-31.

Kopka J, Fernie A, Weckwerth W, Gibon Y, Stitt M. Metabolite profiling in plant biology: Platforms and destinations. Genome Biology. 2004;5(6):109.

Kessler A, Kalske A. Plant Secondary Metabolite diversity and species interactions. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 2018;49(1):115-38.

Fang C, Fernie AR, Luo J. Exploring the diversity of plant metabolism. trends in plant Science. 2019;24(1):83-98

Tdck D, Am A, Salim N, Ug C. Evaluation of Centella asiatica morphotypes for high yields of asiaticoside. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2016;5(6):451–4.

Farmakope Herbal Indonesia. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2008.

Published
2020-02-24
How to Cite
1.
Maruzy A, Budiarti M, Subositi D. Autentikasi Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. (Pegagan) dan Adulterannya Berdasarkan Karakter Makroskopis, Mikroskopis, dan Profil Kimia. jki [Internet]. 24Feb.2020 [cited 3Aug.2020];10(1):19-0. Available from: https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/jki/article/view/1830