Outcomes In Covid Patient And Related Factors: A Crossectional Study

  • Putu Sudarmika
Keywords: indeks massa tubuh, merokok, alcohol, hasil lab, luaran, body mass, smoking, alcohol, blood count, outcomes



Latar Belakang: Corona Virus Disease 19 merupakan penyakit infeksi menular yang berdampak besar pada semua aspek kehidupan. Studi ini mengeksplorasi faktor-faktor yang terkait dengan hasil COVID-19.

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan data deskriptif analitik cross sectional dan retrospektif dengan teknik total sampling. Analisis yang digunakan adalah deskriptif, chi-square, dan regresi logistik bertahap

Hasil: Hubungan antara usia dan hasil COVID-19 (p=0,002). Tidak ada korelasi antara jenis kelamin dan hasil (p=0,221). Pekerjaan migran tidak terkait dengan hasil (p=0,303), IMT dengan hasil COVID-19 (p=0,009). Riwayat merokok dengan outcome COVID-19 (p=0,005). Riwayat konsumsi alkohol dengan hasil COVID-19 (p=0,002). Penyakit penyerta dengan hasil COVID-19 yang memburuk (p=0,015). Hemoglobin dengan risiko hasil yang memburuk (p=0,004). Leukosit dengan hasil (p=0,006). Lama rawat inap bukan merupakan faktor risiko memburuknya hasil COVID-19 (p=0,224). Hasil multivariat BMI dengan p=0,005 (OR: 4,5 CI: 1,57-13,03)

Simpulan: Pasien yang lebih tua membutuhkan perhatian lebih untuk terjadinya hasil yang memburuk. Pria ditemukan mengalami hasil yang lebih buruk. Riwayat merokok, penyakit penyerta, dan riwayat konsumsi alkohol merupakan faktor risiko hasil COVID-19. Hemoglobin dan leukosit merupakan faktor risiko untuk hasil yang memburuk. Indeks massa tubuh sebagai faktor risiko paling dominan menyebabkan hasil yang memburuk pada COVID-19.


Kata kunci: indeks massa tubuh, merokok, alcohol, hasil lab, luaran



Background: Corona Virus Disease 19 is a contagious infectious disease that has a major impact on all aspects of life. This study explores the factors related to the outcome of COVID-19.

Methods: This study uses cross-sectional analytical descriptive and retrospective data with a total sampling technique. The analysis used was descriptive, chi-square, and stepwise logistic regression

Results: The relationship between age and the outcome of COVID-19 (p=0.002). There was no correlation between gender and outcome (p=0.221). Migrant work was not related to outcome (p=0.303), BMI with the outcome of COVID-19 (p=0.009). History of smoking with COVID-19 outcome (p=0.005). History of alcohol consumption with COVID-19 outcome (p=0.002). Comorbid disease with the worsening outcome of COVID-19 (p=0.015). Hemoglobin with risk of worsening outcome (p=0.004). Leukocytes with the outcome (p=0.006). Length of stay was not a risk factor for worsening outcomes for COVID-19 (p=0.224). BMI multivariate results with p=0.005 (OR 4.5 CI: 1.57-13.03)

Conclusion: Older patients require more attention to the occurrence of worsening outcomes. Men were found to experience more poor outcomes. Smoking history, comorbidities, and alcohol consumption history were risk factors for COVID-19 outcomes. Hemoglobin and leukocytes is a risk factor for worsening outcomes. Body mass index as the most dominant risk factor causes worsening outcomes in COVID-19.


Keywords: body mass, smoking, alcohol, blood count, outcomes


WHO. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) 22 January 2020. WHO Bull [Internet]. 2020;(JANUARY):1–7. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200122-sitrep-2-2019-ncov.pdf
2. Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang YW. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: The mystery and the miracle. J Med Virol [Internet]. 2020;92(4):401–2. Available from: doi.10.1002/jmv.25678
3. Lipsitch M, Swerdlow DL, Finelli L. Defining the epidemiology of Covid-19 - Studies needed. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2020;382(13):1194–6. Available from: doi.10.1056/NEJMp2002125
4. Bassetti M, Vena A, Giacobbe DR. The novel Chinese coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections: Challenges for fighting the storm. Eur J Clin Invest [Internet]. 2020;50(3). Available from: doi.10.1111/eci.13209
5. Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, et al. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med [Internet]. 2020;382(10):929–36. Available from: doi.10.1056/NEJMoa2001191
6. Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. J Med Virol [Internet]. 2020;92(4):441–7. Available from: doi.10.1002/jmv.25689
7. Ren LL, Wang YM, Wu ZQ, Xiang ZC, Guo L, Xu T, et al. Identification of a novel coronavirus causing severe pneumonia in human: a descriptive study. Chin Med J (Engl) [Internet]. 2020;133(9):1015–24. Available from: doi.10.1097/CM9.0000000000000722
8. Du RH, Liang LR, Yang CQ, Wang W, Cao TZ, Li M, et al. Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARSCoV- 2: A prospective cohort study. Eur Respir J [Internet]. 2020;55(5). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00524-2020
9. Dong Y, Mo X, Hu Y, Qi X, Jiang F, Jiang Z, et al. Epidemiology of COVID-19 Among Children in China. Pediatrics [Internet]. 2020;145(6). Available from: doi.10.1542/peds.2020-0702
10. Sattar N, McInnes IB, McMurray JJ V. Obesity a Risk Factor for Severe COVID-19 Infection: Multiple Potential Mechanisms. Circulation [Internet]. 2020;44(0):1–8. Available from: doi.10.1161/circulationaha.120.047659
11. Biswas M, Rahaman S, Biswas TK, Haque Z, Ibrahim B. Association of Sex, Age, and Comorbidities with Mortality in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Intervirology [Internet]. 2021;64(1):36–47. Available from: doi.10.1159/000512592
12. Jin JM, Bai P, He W, Wu F, Liu XF, Han DM, et al. Gender Differences in Patients With COVID-19: Focus on Severity and Mortality. Front Public Heal [Internet]. 2020;8(April):1–6. Available from: doi.10.3389/fpubh.2020.00152
13. Sayad B, Afshar ZM, Mansouri F, Rahimi Z. Leukocytosis and alteration of hemoglobin level in patients with severe COVID-19: Association of leukocytosis with mortality. Heal Sci Reports [Internet]. 2020;3(4):2–4. Available from: doi.10.1002/hsr2.194
14. Liu Y, Mao B, Liang S, Yang JW, Lu HW, Chai YH, et al. Association between age and clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19. Eur Respir J [Internet]. 2020;318(6). Available from: doi.10.1183/13993003.01112-2020
15. Cortis D. On Determining the Age Distribution of COVID-19 Pandemic. Front Public Heal [Internet]. 2020;8(May):1–3. Available from: doi.10.3389/fpubh.2020.00202
16. Chang WH. Understanding the COVID-19 pandemic from a gender perspective. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol [Internet]. 2020;59(6):801–7. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tjog.2020.09.004
17. Elgendy IY, Pepine CJ. Why are women better protected from COVID-19: Clues for men? Sex and COVID-19. Internatinal J Cardiol [Internet]. 2020;315(January):105–6. Available from: www.elsevi er.com/locate/ijcard%0AWhy
18. Agrawal H, Das N, Nathani S, Saha S, Saini S, Kakar SS, et al. An Assessment on Impact of COVID-19 Infection in a Gender Specific Manner. Stem Cell Rev Reports [Internet]. 2021;17(1):94–112. Available from: doi.10.1007/s12015-020-10048-z
19. Kusumastuti A, Arawindha U, Harjo IWW. Indonesia migrant worker’s strategy toward covid-19: Study of migrant’s knowledge and host countries’ policy. Proc Int Conf Ind Eng Oper Manag [Internet]. 2020;(August):3061–70. Available from: http://www.ieomsociety.org/detroit2020/papers/623.pdf
20. ILO. Labor migration in Asia. [Internet]. Vol. 9, Asian migrant. 2021. 5–14 p. Available from: doi.10.1177/019791839102500108
21. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. Impact of COVID-19 on Migrants and Refugees in the Arab Region. In 2020. Available from: www.unescwa.org.
22. Peres KC, Riera R, Martimbianco ALC, Ward LS, Cunha LL. Body Mass Index and Prognosis of COVID-19 Infection. A Systematic Review. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) [Internet]. 2020;11(August). Available from: doi.10.3389/fendo.2020.00562
23. Group WB. Summary of Key Messages. Gend Dimens COVID-19 pandemic [Internet]. 2020;18(April):964–9. Available from: http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/232551485539744935/WDR17-BP-Gender-based-violence-and-the-law.pdf%0Awww.adelaide.edu.au/writingcentre/%0Awww.iucn.org
24. Vardavas CI, Nikitara K. COVID-19 and smoking: A systematic review of the evidence. Tob Induc Dis. 2020;18(March):1–4.
25. Chodkiewicz J, Talarowska M, Miniszewska J, Nawrocka N, Bilinski P. Alcohol consumption reported during the COVID-19 pandemic: The initial stage. Int J Environ Res Public Health [Internet]. 2020;17(13):1–11. Available from: doi.10.3390/ijerph17134677
26. Rehm J, Kilian C, Ferreira-Borges C, Jernigan D, Monteiro M, Parry CDH, et al. Alcohol use in times of the COVID 19: Implications for monitoring and policy. Drug Alcohol Rev [Internet]. 2020;39(4):301–4. Available from: doi.10.1111/dar.13074
27. Xu J, Li Y, Xia Q, Shi Q. Association between thyroid disease and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection: A meta-analysis. Iran J Public Health. 2021;50(8):1517–25.
28. Vaduganathan M, Vardeny O, Mcmurray JJ V, Pfeffer MA, Ph D, Solomon SD. Renin – Angiotensin – Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Covid-19 [Internet]. Vol. 382, The New England Journal of Medicine. 2020. p. 1653–9. Available from: nejm.org
29. Rossi GP, Sanga V, Barton M. Potential harmful effects of discontinuing ace-inhibitors and arbs in covid-19 patients. Elife [Internet]. 2020; 9:1–8. Available from: doi.10.7554/eLife.57278
30. Guo W, Li M, Dong Y, Zhou H, Zhang Z, Tian C, et al. Diabetes is a risk factor for the progression and prognosis of COVID-19. Diabetes Metab Res Rev [Internet]. 2020;36(7):1–9. Available from: doi.10.1002/dmrr.3319
31. Karimi Shahri M, Niazkar HR, Rad F. COVID-19 and hematology findings based on the current evidences: A puzzle with many missing pieces. Int J Lab Hematol [Internet]. 2021;43(2):160–8. Available from: doi.10.1111/ijlh.13412
32. Domenica CM, Perla E, Antonio P, John P, Ali T, Paul T. the Covid – 19 Pandemic and Haemoglobin Disorders. In: A contribution of Thalassaemia International Federation to its global patients’ community Federation to its global patients’ community [Internet]. 2020. p. 1–13. Available from: https://thalassemia.international.federation
33. Algassim AA, Elghazaly AA, Alnahdi AS, Mohammed-Rahim OM, Alanazi AG, Aldhuwayhi NA, et al. Prognostic significance of hemoglobin level and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Ann Hematol. 2021;100(1):37–43.
34. Carsana L, Sonzogni A, Nasr A, Rossi RS, Pellegrinelli A, Zerbi P, et al. Pulmonary post-mortem findings in a series of COVID-19 cases from northern Italy: a two-centre descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis [Internet]. 2020;20(10):1135–40. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30434-5
35. Fan BE, Chong VCL, Chan SSW, Lim GH, Lim KGE, Tan GB, et al. Hematologic parameters in patients with COVID-19 infection. Am J Hematol. 2020;95(6):E131–4.
36. Rosenzweig JD, McThenia SS, Kaicker S. SARS-CoV-2 infection in two pediatric patients with immune cytopenias: A single institution experience during the pandemic. Pediatr Blood Cancer [Internet]. 2020;67(9):3–4. Available from: doi.10.1002/pbc.28503
37. Lopez C, Kim J, Pandey A, Huang T, DeLoughery TG. Simultaneous onset of COVID-19 and autoimmune haemolytic anaemia. Br J Haematol. 2020;190(1):31–2.
38. Faghih Dinevari M, Somi MH, Sadeghi Majd E, Abbasalizad Farhangi M, Nikniaz Z. Anemia predicts poor outcomes of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients: a prospective study in Iran. BMC Infect Dis [Internet]. 2021;21(1):1–7. Available from: doi.10.1186/s12879-021-05868-4
39. Sun Y, Zhou J, Ye K. White blood cells and severe covid-19: A mendelian randomization study. J Pers Med [Internet]. 2021;11(3). Available from: doi.10.3390/jpm11030195
40. Wang J, Jiang M, Chen X, Montaner LJ. Cytokine storm and leukocyte changes in mild versus severe SARS-CoV-2 infection: Review of 3939 COVID-19 patients in China and emerging pathogenesis and therapy concepts. J Leukoc Biol. 2020;108(1):17–41.
41. Rees EM, Nightingale ES, Jafari Y, Waterlow NR, Clifford S, Carl CA, et al. COVID-19 length of hospital stay: A systematic review and data synthesis. BMC Med [Internet]. 2020;18(1). Available from: doi.10.1186/s12916-020-01726-3
42. Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet [Internet]. 2020;395(10223):507–13. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
43. IHME. Forecasting COVID-19 impact on hospital bed-days, ICU-days, ventilator-days and deaths by US state in the next 4 months. 2020;114:1–26. Available from: doi.10.1101/2020.03.27.20043752
How to Cite
Sudarmika, P. (2022). Outcomes In Covid Patient And Related Factors: A Crossectional Study. Jurnal Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Pelayanan Kesehatan. https://doi.org/10.22435/jpppk.v0i0.5626