• Siti Helmyati
  • Setyo Utami Wisnusanti Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Maria Wigati Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Endri Yuliati Universitas Respati Yogyakarta
Keywords: children, dysbiosis, gut microbiota, obesity


Background. Obesity in children makes the higher risk of micronutrients deficiency, increase profile lipid, and promote cell inflammation. Some studies report that gut microbiota may have roles in body metabolism include obesity. Our study aimed to compare the number of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter between obese, normal, and wasted children. Methods. The study was performed in 115 healthy children in West Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The total number of bacteria was counted using a culture technique with selective media and total plate count method. Dietary intake assessed to all subjects using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA between three groups. Results. The result showed a significant difference in the number of Escherichia coli between obese, normal, and wasted children (p= 0.02), meanwhile there were no significant differences of dietary intake and the number of Lactobacillus, Enterobacter, and Bifidobacteria between the three groups. A potential mechanism by which dysbiosis may cause obesity is its ability to produce short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) by fermentation in the colon. It may increase gut permeability, ghrelin secretion, or bind to toll-like-receptor which leads to enhancement of free fatty acid, cholesterol, and adipose tissue synthesis. Conclusion. Dysbiosis often happened in obese children. Obese children tend to have an imbalance of gut microbiota. However, it needs further study to assess the effects of certain gut microbiota on dietary intake and their effects on obesity cases among children.

Keywords: children, dysbiosis, gut microbiota, obesity


Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat. Profil Kesehatan Provinsi NTB 2013. 2013.

Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia. Basic Health Research. Jakarta; 2013.

García OP, Ronquillo D, Caamaño M del C, Martínez G, Camacho M, López V, et al. Zinc, Iron and Vitamins A, C and E are Associated with Obesity, Inflammation, Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Mexican School-Aged Children. Nutrients.2013;5(12):5012–30.

Pihl AF, Fonvig CE, Stjernholm T, Hansen T, Pedersen O, Holm J-C. The Role of the Gut Microbiota in Childhood Obesity. Child Obes. 2016;12(4):292–9. Available from:

Riva A, Borgo F, Lassandro C, Verduci E, Morace G, Borghi E, et al. Pediatric Obesity is Associated with an Altered Gut Microbiota and Discordant Shifts in Firmicutes Populations. Environ Microbiol. 2017;19(1):95–105.

Koleva PT, Bridgman SL, Kozyrskyj AL. The Infant Gut Microbiome: Evidence for Obesity Risk and Dietary Intervention. Nutrients. 2015;7(4):2237–60.

Delzenne NM, Cani PD. Interaction Between Obesity and the Gut Microbiota: Relevance in Nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr. 2011;31(1):15–31. Available from:

Machado M, Cortez-Pinto H. Diet, Microbiota, Obesity, and NAFLD: A Dangerous Quartet. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(4):481. Available from:

Seksik P, Landman C. Understanding Microbiome Data: A Primer for Clinicians. Dig Dis. 2015;33(Suppl 1):11–6. Available from:

Paganini D, Uyoga MA, Zimmermann MB. Iron Fortification of Foods for Infants and Children in Low-Income Countries: Effects on The Gut Microbiome, Gut Inflammation, and Diarrhea. Nutrients. 2016;8(8):1–6.

Sastroasmoro S, Ismael. Dasar-Dasar Penelitian Klinis. Jakarta: Sagung Seto; 2002.

Million M, Maraninchi M, Henry M, Armougom F, Richet H, Carrieri P, et al. Obesity-Associated Gut Microbiota is Enriched in Lactobacillus Reuteri and Depleted in Bifidobacterium Animalis and Methanobrevibacter Smithii. Int J Obes. 2012;36(6):817–25. Available from:

Goldbloom RB. For the Optimum Management of Iron Deficiency: Slow-fe. C J. 1975;113:139.

Escobedo G, López-Ortiz E, Torres-Castro I. Gut Microbiota as A Key Player in Triggering Obesity, Systemic Inflammation and Insulin Resistance. Rev Investig Clínica. 2014;66(5):450–9. Available from:

Schwiertz A, Taras D, Schäfer K, Beijer S, Bos NA, Donus C, et al. Microbiota and SCFA in Lean and Overweight Healthy Subjects. Obesity. 2010;18(1):190–5. Available from:

Hawrelak JA, Myers SP. The Causes of Intestinal Dysbiosis: A Review. Altern Med Rev. 2004;9(2):180–97. Available from:

Million M, Thuny F, Angelakis E, Casalta J-P, Giorgi R, Habib G, et al. Lactobacillus Reuteri and Escherichia Coli in The Human Gut Microbiota may Predict Weight Gain Associated with Vancomycin Treatment. Nutr Diabetes. 2013;3(9):e87. Available from:

Gao X, Jia R, Xie L, Kuang L, Feng L, Wan C. Obesity in School-Aged Children and its Correlation with Gut E.Coli and Bifidobacteria: A Case–Control Study. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15(1):64. Available from:

Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Human Gut Microbes Associated with Obesity. Nature. 2006;444(7122):1022–3. Available from:

Kang J-H, Yun S-I, Park H-O. Effects of Lactobacillus Gasseri BNR17 on Body Weight and Adipose Tissue Mass in Diet-Induced Overweight Rats. J Microbiol. 2010;48(5):712–4. Available from:

García OP, Long KZ, Rosado JL. Impact of Micronutrient Deficiencies on Obesity. Nutr Rev. 2009;67(10):559–72. Available from:

Aigner E, Feldman A, Datz C. Obesity as an Emerging Risk Factor for Iron Deficiency. Nutrients. 2014;6(9):3587–600.

Cepeda-Lopez AC, Melse-Boonstra A, Zimmermann MB, Herter-Aeberli I. In Overweight and Obese Women, Dietary Iron Absorption is Reduced and The Enhancement of Iron Absorption by Ascorbic Acid is One-Half that in Normal-Weight Women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(6):1389–97. Available from:

Zimmermann MB, Chassard C, Rohner F, Goran KNE, Nindjin C, Dostal A, et al. The Effects of Iron Fortification on The Gut Microbiota in African Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Coˆ Te d’Ivoire. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:1406–15.

Messenger AJ, Barclay R. Bacteria, Iron and Pathogenicity. Biochem Educ. 1983;11(2):54–63.

Chang BJ, Park SU, Jang YS, Ko SH, Joo NM, Kim SI, et al. Effect of Functional Yogurt NY-YP901 in Improving The Trait of Metabolic Syndrome. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011;65(11):1250–5. Available from:

Omar JM, Chan Y-M, Jones ML, Prakash S, Jones PJH. Lactobacillus Fermentum and Lactobacillus Amylovorus as Probiotics Alter Body Adiposity and Gut Microflora in Healthy Persons. J Funct Foods. 2013;5(1):116–23. Available from:

Cani PD, Lecourt E, Dewulf EM, Sohet FM, Pachikian BD, Naslain D, et al. Gut Microbiota Fermentation of Prebiotics Increases Satietogenic and Incretin Gut Peptide Production with Consequences for Appetite Sensation and Glucose Response After A Meal. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(5):1236–43.

Sanchez M, Panahi S, Tremblay A. Childhood Obesity: A Role for Gut Microbiota? Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015;12(1):162–75.

Laparra JM, Díez-Municio M, Herrero M, Moreno FJ. Structural Differences of Prebiotic Oligosaccharides Influence Their Capability to Enhance Iron Absorption in Deficient Rats. Food Funct. 2014;5(10):2430–7. Available from:

Grönlund M-M, Gueimonde M, Laitinen K, Kociubinski G, Grönroos T, Salminen S, et al. Maternal Breast-Milk and Intestinal Bifidobacteria Guide The Compositional Development of The Bifidobacterium Microbiota in Infants at Risk of Allergic Disease. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37(12):1764–72. Available from:

Duncan SH, Belenguer A, Holtrop G, Johnstone AM, Flint HJ, Lobley GE. Reduced Dietary Intake of Carbohydrates by Obese Subjects Results in Decreased Concentrations of Butyrate and Butyrate-Producing Bacteria in Feces. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73(4):1073–8. Available from:

Roy CC, Kien CL, Bouthillier L, Levy E. Short-Chain Fatty Acids: Ready for Prime Time? Nutr Clin Pract. 2006;21(4):351–66. Available from:

Chakraborti CK. New-Found Link Between Microbiota and Obesity. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2015;6(4):110–9. Available from:

Walker WE. Policy Analysis: A Systematic Approach to Supporting Policymaking in The Public Sector. Decis. Anal. 2000; 9:11-27. Available from:

Cani PD, Bibiloni R, Knauf C, Waget A, Neyrinck AM, Delzenne NM, et al. Changes in Gut Microbiota Control Metabolic Endotoxemia-Induced Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Diabetes in Mice. Diabetes. 2008;57(6):1470–81. Available from:

Parnell JA, Reimer RA. Prebiotic Fibres Dose-Dependently Increase Satiety Hormones and Alter Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes in Lean and Obese JCR:LA-Cp Rats. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(4):601–13. Available from:

Sato J, Kanazawa A, Ikeda F, Yoshihara T, Goto H, Abe H, et al. Gut Dysbiosis and Detection of “Live Gut Bacteria” in Blood of Japanese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2014;37(8):2343–50. Available from:

Carding S, Verbeke K, Vipond DT, Corfe BM, Owen LJ. Dysbiosis of The Gut Microbiota In Disease. Microb Ecol Heal Dis. 2015;26:26191. Available from:

Mehal WZ. The Gordian Knot of Dysbiosis, Obesity and NAFLD. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;10(11):637–44. Available from:

Turnbaugh PJ, Hamady M, Yatsunenko T, Cantarel BL, Duncan A, Ley RE, et al. A Core Gut Microbiome in Obese and Lean Twins. Nature. 2009;457(7228):480–4. Available from:

How to Cite
Helmyati S, Wisnusanti S, Wigati M, Yuliati E. THE RELATION BETWEEN GUT MICROBIOTA AND OBESITY AMONG CHILDREN IN WEST LOMBOK, WEST NUSA TENGGARA, INDONESIA. mgmi [Internet]. 12Dec.2019 [cited 22Sep.2021];11(1):12. Available from: