THE EFFICACY OF FLAVONOID IN RED MULBERRY ON REDUCING FREE RADICALS AND ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES DUE TO CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE IN WISTAR RATS
Background. Free radicals in cigarette smoke will hurt health when they enter to the respiratory tract. An excessive increase of free radicals in the body will cause oxidative stress. Free radicals are generated physiologically by the body's metabolism and can neutralize antioxidants in the body. An imbalance number of free radicals will result in cell damage and death. It has characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde levels in the blood and alveolar macrophages in the lung tissue. Giving red mulberry (Morus rubra) as an intake of antioxidants from outside the body can prevent adverse effects of cigarette smoke. Objective. This study analyses flavonoids' impact on red mulberry in reducing free radicals due to exposure to cigarette smoke by lowering levels of malondialdehyde and alveolar macrophages. Method. This research is experimental with a post-test control group design using male Wistar rats (Rattus novergicus) as experimental animals. Treatment of experimental animals through red mulberry per oral and exposure to cigarette smoke had conducted for 30 days. The parameters used were levels of malondialdehyde and alveolar macrophages in the lung tissue. Results. The research showed an increase in free radicals in the group exposed to cigarette smoke. Increasing intake of red mulberry can further reduce malondialdehyde levels and the number of alveolar macrophages (p<0.05). Conclusions. The antioxidants in red mulberry can reduce malondialdehyde levels in the blood and the number of alveolar macrophages in lung tissue due to exposure to cigarette smoke.
Copyright (c) 2018 Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Publishing your paper with Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia means that the author or authors transfer the copyright to Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia. Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia granted an exclusive reuse license by the author(s), but the author(s) are able to put the paper onto a website, distribute it to colleagues, give it to students, use it in your thesis etc, even commercially.
Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. This license lets others remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.
Media Gizi Mikro Indonesia Open Access articles are distributed under this Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA). Articles can be read and shared for All purposes under the following conditions:
- BY: You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
- SA: If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.