Hubungan Persepsi tentang Penularan HIV/AIDS dari Ibu ke Anak terhadap Praktik Penggunaan Kontrasepsi pada Wanita Usia Subur Penerima Obat Antiretroviral di Kota Bandung

The Relationship of Perception about Transmission of HIV/AIDS from Mother to Child to the Practice of Use of Contraception in Women of Childbearing Age Receiving Antiretroviral Medication in the City of Bandung

  • Riska Regia Catur Putri Program Studi Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran Bandung
  • Zulvayanti Zulvayanti Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi RSUP Dr. Hasan Sadikin Fakultas Kedoketeran Universitas Padjadjaran
  • Panji Fortuna Hadisoemarto Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Eyckman No. 38, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Deni K. Sunjaya Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Eyckman No. 38, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Elsa Pudji Setiawati Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran
  • Helni Mariani Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran
  • Indah Amelia Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Padjadjaran
Keywords: Health Belif Model, ketidaktahuan majemuk, penggunaan kontrasepsi, wanita HIV positif

Abstract

Abstract   

More than 90% of cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom (AIDS) in children, occur due to transmission from mother to child. Prevention of unwanted pregnancies with contraception in HIV positive women is important strategy to reduce the rate of mother to child HIV/AIDS transmission. The practice of contraceptive use in HIV positive women is strongly influenced by individual beliefs regarding the benefits and effectiveness of contraception for the prevention of mother to child HIV/AIDS transmission. This study aims to determine the relationship of perceptions based on the construct of the Health Belief Model (HBM) wich consists of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, self efficacy, and cues to action and based on pluralistic ignorance on the practice of contraceptive use among woman of childbearing age recipients of antiretroviral in Bandung. The design of this study was quantitative non-experimental with survey methods. Data were collected for one month, using questionnaire from 188 women of childbearing age  receiving  antiretroviral drughs taken by consecutive sampling (non-probability) technique. Data were analyzed by logistic regression. The results revealed perceived susceptibility is an HBM construct that affects contraceptive use (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR):4.5). While knowledge (AOR:7.3) and age (AOR:0.801), emerged as other factors that influence contraceptive use among WUS recipients of antiretroviral in Bandung. The HBM is used to predict contraceptive behavior in women. HIV positive women who believe themselves to be at high risk of infecting HIV/AIDS from mother to child will tend to use contraception, besides that knowledge is the basis for HIV positive women taking action to use contraception.

Abstrak

Lebih dari 90% kasus Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrom (AIDS) pada anak, terjadi akibat penularan dari ibu ke anak. Pencegahan kehamilan yang tidak direncanakan dengan kontrasepsi pada wanita HIV positif merupakan strategi penting untuk menurunkan angka penularan HIV/AIDS dari ibu ke anak. Praktik penggunaan kontrasepsi oleh wanita HIV positif sangat dipengaruhi oleh keyakinan individu terkait manfaat dan efektivitas kontrasepsi terhadap pencegahan penularan HIV/AIDS dari ibu ke anak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan persepsi berdasarkan konstruk Health Belief Model (HBM) yang terdiri dari perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefit, perceived barrier, self efficacy, dan cues to action serta berdasarkan ketidaktahuan majemuk terhadap praktik penggunaan kontrasepsi pada Wanita Usia Subur (WUS) penerima obat antiretroviral di Kota Bandung. Desain penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif non-experimental dengan metode survei. Data dikumpulkan selama satu bulan, menggunakan kuesioner dari 188 WUS penerima obat antiretroviral yang diambil dengan teknik consecutive sampling (non-probability). Data dianalisis dengan regresi logistik. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan perceived susceptibility adalah konstruk HBM yang berpengaruh terhadap penggunaan kontrasepsi (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR):4,5). Sementara pengetahuan (AOR:7,3) dan usia (AOR:0,801) muncul sebagai faktor-faktor lain yang berpengaruh terhadap praktik penggunaan kontrasepsi pada WUS penerima obat antiretroviral di Kota Bandung. HBM digunakan untuk memprediksi perilaku kontrasepsi pada wanita. Wanita HIV positif yang meyakini dirinya berisiko tinggi dapat menularkan HIV/AIDS ke anak, akan cenderung menggunakan kontrasepsi, disamping itu pengetahuan menjadi dasar bagi wanita HIV positif dalam mengambil tindakan untuk menggunakan kontrasepsi.

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Published
2020-01-15
Section
Articles