Pemanfaatan Tumbuhan Famili Fabaceae untuk Pengobatan Penyakit Liver oleh Pengobat Tradisional Berbagai Etnis di Indonesia

  • Harto Widodo Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Obat dan Obat Tradisional, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan
  • Abdul Rohman Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Sismindari Sismindari Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Keywords: Fabaceae, penyakit liver, pengobat tradisional, etnis

Abstract

Abstract

Liver disease is one of the leading causes of death globally. Recently, its prevalence and mortality rate continue to increase. It was reported that Indonesia’s hepatitis prevalence was 1.2% in 2013. Indonesia is the world second largest megabiodiversity country and inhabited by 1,068 ethnicities. Both are assets to explore medicinal plants as well as local knowledge to overcome various diseases. Ethnomedicine research by the National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD) of Republic of Indonesia in year of 2012, 2015, and 2017 resulted in local etnopharmacology and medicinal plants in Indonesia. One important information is data on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of liver disease by traditional healers from various ethnic groups in Indonesia. Analysis of the information set shows that the most widely used plant species for the treatment of liver disease by battra are included in Fabaceae family. Therefore, further studies of the literature regarding the use of empirical, compound content, therapeutic activities and pharmacology of plant species are used as support or even correction for their use in the treatment of liver disease. Various properties as antibiotics (against viruses, bacteria, parasites, fungi), anti-inflammation, antioxidants, hepatoprotectors, and immunomodulators support the use of these species for the treatment of liver disease. Further research is needed to provide basic data on its use in traditional medicine, obtain and develop new drug compounds, and reveal broader use, not to mention toxic and anti-nutritional compounds. This information is expected to be useful for those who are involved in the ethnobotany, botany, pharmacognosy, and pharmacology fields.

Abstrak

Penyakit liver termasuk salah satu penyakit yang menjadi penyebab kematian utama secara global, dengan angka kematian terus mengalami peningkatan. Hepatitis merupakan salah satu penyakit liver, prevalensi di Indonesia pada tahun 2013 mencapai 1,2%. Sebagai negara megabiodiversitas nomor dua di dunia yang dihuni oleh 1.068 etnis/suku bangsa, Indonesia kaya akan tumbuhan yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk mengatasi berbagai penyakit. Riset etnomedisin oleh Badan Litbang Kesehatan RI pada tahun 2012, 2015, dan 2017 menghasilkan metadata pengetahuan lokal etnofarmakologi dan tumbuhan obat Indonesia. Salah satu informasi pentingnya yaitu data pemanfaatan tumbuhan obat untuk pengobatan penyakit liver oleh pengobat tradisional (battra) dari berbagai etnis di Indonesia. Analisis terhadap set informasi tersebut menunjukkan bahwa spesies tumbuhan paling banyak digunakan untuk pengobatan penyakit liver termasuk dalam famili Fabaceae. Oleh karena itu, dilakukan studi literatur mengenai pemanfaatan empiris, kandungan senyawa, aktivitas terapeutik dan farmakologi spesies-spesies tumbuhan tersebut sebagai dukungan atau bahkan koreksi terhadap pemanfaatannya untuk pengobatan penyakit liver. Berbagai khasiat sebagai antibiotik (terhadap virus, bakteri, parasit, jamur), anti-inflamasi, antioksidan, hepatoprotektor, dan imunomodulator menyokong pemanfaatan spesies tersebut untuk pengobatan penyakit liver. Penelitian lebih lanjut sangat diperlukan untuk memberikan data dasar penggunaannya dalam pengobatan tradisional, mendapat dan mengembangkan senyawa obat baru, serta mengungkap pemanfaatan yang lebih luas tak terkecuali pula terhadap senyawa toksik dan anti-nutrisi. Informasi ini diharapkan dapat bermanfaat bagi yang menggeluti bidang etnobotani, botani, farmakognosi, dan farmakologi.

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Published
2019-04-14
Section
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