Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk <p><strong>ISSN Media Cetak : 0853-9987</strong> <br> <strong>ISSN Media Elektronik : 2338-3445</strong></p> <p>Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan (Media of Health Research and Development) is one of the journals published by the Agency for Health Research and Development ( National Institute of Health Research and Development ) , Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. This journal article is a form of research results , research reports and assessments / reviews related to the efforts of health in Indonesia .<br>Media Research and Development of Health published 4 times a year and has been accredited Indonesian Institute of Sciences ( LIPI ) by Decree No. 396/AU2/P2MI/04/2012 . This journal was first published in March 1991.</p> <p>Media of Health Research and Development currently has been registered on the sites: <a href="http://isjd.pdii.lipi.go.id/index.php/Search.html?act=jurnal" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener">Indonesian Scientific Journal Database</a>; <a href="http://www.portalgaruda.org/?ref=browse&amp;mod=viewjournal&amp;journal=4883" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener">Indonesian Publication Index</a>; <a href="http://www.drji.org/Search.aspx?q=Media%20Litbang%20Kesehatan&amp;id=0" rel="nofollow">Directory of Research Journals Indexing</a>; <a href="http://www.getcited.org/pub/103518859" rel="nofollow">getCITED;</a> <a href="https://doaj.org/search?source={%22query%22%3A{%22filtered%22%3A{%22filter%22%3A{%22bool%22%3A{%22must%22%3A[{%22term%22%3A{%22_type%22%3A%22journal%22}}]}}%2C%22query%22%3A{%22query_string%22%3A{%22query%22%3A%22media%20penelitian%20dan%20pengembangan%20kesehatan%22%2C%22default_operator%22%3A%22AND%22}}}}%2C%22from%22%3A0%2C%22size%22%3A10}#.UrPuLeIpWkw" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener">Directory of Open Access Journals</a>; <a href="http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=media+penelitian+dan+pengembangan+kesehatan&amp;btnG=&amp;hl=en&amp;as_sdt=0%2C5" rel="nofollow">Google Scholar</a>; <a href="http://www.oaji.net/journal-detail.html?number=209" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener">Open Academic Journals Index</a>; <a href="http://www.isurs.org/master_list.php?topic_id=12" rel="nofollow">International Society of Universal Research in Sciences</a>; <a href="http://www.base-search.net/Search/Results?lookfor=media+penelitian+kesehatan&amp;type=all&amp;ling=1&amp;name=&amp;thes=&amp;refid=dcresen&amp;newsearch=1" rel="nofollow">Bielefeld Academic Search Engine</a> (BASE); <a href="http://www.journaltocs.ac.uk/index.php?action=browse&amp;subAction=pub&amp;publisherID=2692&amp;journalID=28981&amp;pageb=1&amp;userQueryID=3766&amp;sort=&amp;local_page=1&amp;sorType=&amp;sorCol=1" rel="nofollow">JournalTOCs</a>; and <a href="http://www.citefactor.org/journal.aspx?search=media%20penelitian%20dan%20pengembangan%20kesehatan" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener">Citefactor</a>. Media of Health Research and Development is being reviewed by <a href="http://uifactor.org/UnderReviewJournals.aspx" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener">Universal Impact Factor</a>.</p> <p>During 2014 Media Health Research and Development has published 28 research and review articles.</p> <p>See Google Scholar Profile for Media Health Research and Development by <a href="http://scholar.google.com/citations?user=H_66oy4AAAAJ" target="_blank" rel="nofollow noopener">clicking here</a>.</p> <ul> <li class="show">Total Citations : 706</li> <li class="show">Total Documents : 698</li> <li class="show">h-index : 10</li> <li class="show">i10-index : 10</li> </ul> Sekretariat Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan en-US Media Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan 0853-9987 Front Matter Media Vol 28 No 4 https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/1085 Sekretariat Media ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 28 4 Kemandirian dan Ketersediaan Obat Era Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN): Kebijakan, Harga, dan Produksi Obat https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/269 <p><em>National Health Insurance (JKN) is a guarantee program that provides health protection to participants to obtain health care benefits and protection in meeting the basic health needs provided to everyone who pays contributions or whose contributions are paid by the government. Health insurance coverage includes promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative including medicines and medical devices. Since the enactment of JKN on 1 January 2014, the demand for generic drugs has greatly increased. JKN drug independence is needed in terms of drug availability, access and affordability of JKN drug.The aimed of this research is to find out the independence and availability of drugs in the JKN era. The study design was cross sectional by conducting interviews, Round Table Discussion, and tracking secondary data documents.The results of this study obtained government policies related to JKN drug price, especially generic drugs, have not fully considered the interest of community and the interest of the pharmaceutical industry, as well as drug price control policies to ensure the availability of drugs both in number and type in the JKN era, especially generic drugs that have not been optimally accessed by the public.The government needs to encourage the independence of JKN drugs, especially generic drugs that have not been fulfilled, with the development of domestic production of medicinal raw materials to support JKN, which is currently mostly imported and the price of imported raw materials continue to rise.The priority of production of medicinal raw materials based on local extractive and fermentative.</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p><em>Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (JKN), merupakan program jaminan yang memberikan perlindungan kesehatan kepada peserta untuk memperoleh manfaat pemeliharaan kesehatan dan perlindungan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan dasar kesehatan yang diberikan kepada setiap orang yang membayar iuran atau yang iurannya dibayar oleh pemerintah. Jaminan pelayanan kesehatan meliputi promotif, preventif, kuratif, dan rehabilitatif, termasuk obat dan alat kesehatan. Sejak diberlakukannya JKN pada 1 Januari 2014, permintaan obat generik sangat meningkat pesat. Kemandirian obat JKN diperlukan dalam hal ketersediaan obat, akses, dan keterjangkauan obat JKN. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui kemandirian dan ketersediaan obat era JKN. Desain penelitian adalah cross sectional, dengan melakukan wawancara, round table discussion, dan penelusuran dokumen data sekunder. Hasil penelitian diperoleh kebijakan pemerintah terkait harga obat JKN khususnya obat generik, belum sepenuhnya mempertimbangkan kepentingan masyarakat dan kepentingan industri farmasi,serta kebijakan pengendalian harga obat untuk menjamin ketersediaan obat baik jumlah dan jenisnya di era JKN, khususnya obat generik, belum optimal diakses oleh masyarakat. Pemerintah perlu mendorong kemandirian obat JKN khususnya obat generik yang belum terpenuhi, dengan pengembangan produksi bahan baku obat dalam negeri untuk mendukung JKN, yang saat ini sebagian besar masih impor dan harga bahan baku impor yang terus naik. Prioritas produksi bahan baku obat yaitu berbasis sumber daya lokal, ekstraktif, dan fermentatif</em></p> Raharni Raharni Sudibyo Supardi Ida Diana Sari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 4 219 228 10.22435/mpk.v28i4.269 Gambaran Peran Apoteker sebagai Konselor dalam Pengobatan HIV-AIDS pada Ibu dan Anak https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/329 <p><em>Ministry of Health estimates there are 9,000 pregnant women HIV positive who give birth every year in Indonesia. HIV-positive pregnant women must get Anti Retroviral treatment with a minimum level adherence to the use of anti-retroviral drugs of 90 - 95% drug to get a response to suppresing the virus by 85% . Physiological changes during pregnancy and breastfeeding can affects the drug kinetics in pregnant and lactating women. In children, non-compliance can be caused by saturation, limited drug preparation for children, side effects and other diseases that accompany it. In this article, we will analyze the extent to which pharmacists act as counselors for HIV-AIDS treatment for mothers and children. Data were taken from 2 qualitative studies, namely Implementation Study of Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) Program at HIV-AIDS Referral Hospital in West Java Province in 2014 and Study on Access of HIV-AIDS and Opportunistic Infection Treatment for Children in Ten Districts of Indonesia in 2015. Data collection was carried out by in-depth interviews with pharmacists and doctors who handled pregnant women and children with HIV-AIDS. Data were analyzed using triangulation and content analysis method. The results showed that pharmacists had not been involved as drug counselors and support from the management of the hospitals did not yet exist, so the pharmacist could not yet as a counselor as a form of pharmaceutical services according to standards set by the government Therefore, the role of pharmacist as counselor needs to be improved, because the success of the treatment is highly dependent on the successful collaboration of doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. In order for the pharmacists play a role, it is necessary to get training on HIV-AIDS treatment. In addition, the government needs to advocate for hospital management to facilitate the pharmacist’s counseling as form of counselor.</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Kementerian Kesehatan memperkirakan terdapat 9.000 ibu hamil HIV positif yang melahirkan di Indonesia setiap tahun. Ibu hamil dengan HIV positif harus mendapatkan pengobatan anti retroviral dengan minimal tingkat kepatuhan penggunaan obat Anti Retroviral sebesar 90 - 95% untuk mendapatkan respon penekanan jumlah virus sebesar 85%. Perubahan fisiologi selama kehamilan dan menyusui dapat berpengaruh terhadap kinetika obat pada ibu hamil dan menyusui. Pada anak, ketidakpatuhan dapat disebabkan karena jenuh, sediaan obat untuk anak yang terbatas, efek samping, dan penyakit lain yang menyertai. Pada artikel ini dianalisis sejauh mana apoteker berperan sebagai konselor pengobatan HIVAIDS pada ibu dan anak. Data diambil dari dua penelitian kualitatif yaitu penelitian Studi Implementasi Layanan Pencegahan Penularan HIV dari Ibu ke Anak (PPIA) pada Rumah Sakit Rujukan HIV-AIDS di Provinsi Jawa Barat Tahun 2014 dan Penelitian Akses Pengobatan HIV/AIDS dan Infeksi Oportunistik pada Anak di Sepuluh Kabupaten/Kota di Indonesia Tahun 2015. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan wawancara mendalam dengan apoteker dan dokter yang menangani ibu hamil dan anak dengan HIVAIDS. Analisis data dengan tri angulasi dan analisis konten. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa apoteker belum dilibatkan sebagai konselor obat dan dukungan dari pihak manajemen RS belum ada, sehingga apoteker belum dapat berperan sebagai konselor sebagai salah satu bentuk pelayanan kefarmasian sesuai standar yang telah ditetapkan pemerintah. Oleh karena itu peran apoteker sebagai konselor perlu ditingkatkan karena keberhasilan pengobatan sangat tergantung keberhasilan kolaborasi dokter, perawat,dan apoteker. Agar apoteker dapat lebih berperan maka perlu mendapatkan pelatihan tentang pengobatan HIV-AIDS. Selain itu pemerintah perlu melakukan advokasi kepada manajemen RS untuk memfasilitasi apoteker melakukan konseling sebagai bentuk konselor.</p> Rini Sasanti Handayani Yuyun Yuniar Andi Leny Susyanty Heny Lestary Sugiharti Sugiharti ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 4 229 238 Pengendalian Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 pada Pasien di Puskesmas Jayabaru Kota Banda Aceh https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/63 <p><em>Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that affects many people of the world, including Indonesia. To prevent complications, a good control of DM is needed by patients, one of them is controlling blood sugar and keeping blood pressure stable. DM is reported in Banda Aceh as one of diseases with the highest number of visits every year. The purpose of this study was to determine the achievements of DM control by patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Puskesmas Jayabaru Banda Aceh. The study used a cross sectional design and a sample of 85 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Puskesmas Jayabaru in 2015. The results showed 81.2% HbA1c value ≥ 7%, 80% fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 100 mg/dl, 85.9% of the value post prandial plasma glucose ≥ 140 mg/dl and 58.8% blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg. Of the 85 patients only 7 showed good DM control results. This illustrates that DM control achievement is still below the cut-off value set by PERKENI. Counseling to patients and families is needed to improve the management of type 2 DM by patients.</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Abstrak Diabetes Melitus (DM) merupakan penyakit metabolik yang banyak diderita penduduk dunia, termasuk Indonesia. Untuk mencegah terjadi komplikasi diperlukan pengendalian DM yang baik oleh penderita, salah satunya dengan mengontrol gula darah dan menjaga tekanan darah tetap stabil. Penyakit DM dilaporkan di Kota Banda Aceh sebagai salah satu penyakit dengan angka kunjungan terbanyak setiap tahun. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui capaian pengendalian DM oleh penderita DM tipe 2 di wilayah kerja Puskesmas Jayabaru Kota Banda Aceh. Penelitian menggunakan desain potong lintang dan sampel berjumlah 85 orang penderita DM tipe 2 di Puskesmas Jayabaru tahun 2015. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan 81,2% nilai HbA1c ≥ 7%, 80% nilai GDP ≥ 100 mg/dl, 85,9% nilai GD 2 jam PP ≥ 140 mg/dl, 58,8% dan tekanan darah ≥ 130. Dari 85 pasien hanya tujuh orang yang menunjukkan hasil pengendalian DM yang baik. Hal ini menggambarkan bahwa capaian pengendalian DM masih di bawah nilai <em>cut off</em> yang ditetapkan Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia (PERKENI). Penyuluhan kepada pasien dan keluarga sangat dibutuhkan untuk memperbaiki pengelolaan DM tipe 2 oleh penderita.</p> Nur Ramadhan Nelly Marissa Eka Fitria Veny Wilya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 4 239 246 10.22435/mpk.v28i4.63 Analisis Faktor-Faktor Risiko terhadap Kejadian Stunting pada Balita (0-59 Bulan) di Negara Berkembang dan Asia Tenggara https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/472 <p><em>Stunting is a disorder of linear growth caused by chronic malnutrition. The short stature of under-fives is the cause of 2.2 million of all cause of under-five mortality worldwide. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the effects of determinant risk factors on the incidence of stunting in children under-fives. The design of this study was a literature review. The articles selected were articles of correlation research using cross-sectional studies. The respondents were children with stunting aged 0-59 months. Inclusion criteria to select articles were studies on children with stunting, age 0-59 months, developing countries (including Southeast Asia), had growth chart, still had complete parents. The search process to exclude the articles used for this literature review using the PRISMA method.The results showed that nutritional status factors with birth weight &lt;2,500 gram had a significant effect on the incidence of stunting in children and a risk of stunting of 3.82 times. Maternal education factors have a significant effect on the incidence stunting in children and have a risk of experiencing stunting 1.67 times. Low household income factors were identified as significant predictors of stunting in children under five by 2.1 times. Poor sanitation factors have a significant effect on the incidence of stunting in infants and have a risk of experiencing stunting by 5.0 times. The conclusion of this study is the lower birth weight (LBW), the level of maternal education, household income, and the lack of hygiene sanitation of the house, so the risk of a toddler being stunting is greater.</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Stunting adalah gangguan pertumbuhan linier yang disebabkan kurang gizi yang berlangsung kronis. Keadaan gizi balita pendek menjadi penyebab 2,2 juta dari seluruh penyebab kematian balita di seluruh dunia. Tujuan dari review literatur ini adalah menganalisa efek dari faktor-faktor risiko determinan terhadap kejadian stunting pada balita. Desain penelitian ini adalah literature review. Artikel-artikel yang dipilih dengan search engine adalah artikel correlation research yang menggunakan study cross-sectional dengan respondennya adalah anak dengan stunting usia 0-59 bulan. Kriteria inklusi artikel yang dipilih adalah anak dengan stunting, berusia 0-59 bulan, wilayah negara berkembang (termasuk wilayah Asia Tenggara), memiliki KMS, masih memiliki orang tua lengkap. Proses pencarian hingga pengeksklusian artikel-artikel yang digunakan untuk review literatur ini menggunakan metode PRISMA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor status gizi dengan berat badan lahir &lt; 2.500 gram memiliki pengaruh secara bermakna terhadap kejadian stunting pada anak dan memiliki risiko mengalami stunting sebesar 3,82 kali. Faktor pendidikan ibu rendah memiliki pengaruh secara bermakna terhadap kejadian stunting pada anak dan memiliki risiko mengalami stunting sebanyak 1,67 kali. Faktor pendapatan rumah tangga yang rendah diidentifikasi sebagai predictor signifikan untuk stunting pada balita sebesar 2,1 kali. Faktor sanitasi yang tidak baik memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kejadian stunting pada balita dan memiliki risiko mengalami stunting hingga sebesar 5,0 kali. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah semakin rendahnya berat badan lahir (BBLR), tingkat pendidikan ibu, pendapatan rumah tangga, dan kurangnya hygiene sanitasi rumah maka risiko balita menjadi stunting semakin besar.</p> Gladys Apriluana Sandra Fikawati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 4 247 256 10.22435/mpk.v28i4.472 Deteksi Virus Penyebab Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut di Rumah Sakit (Studi Pendahuluan dengan Uji Fast-Track® Diagnostik) https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/257 <p><strong><em>Abstract</em> </strong></p> <p><em>Acute respiratory infections (ARI) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and Indonesia. Information on the virus that causes ARI is still limited. The aim of this study was to detect the virus that causes ARI hospitalized cases in three sentinel surveillance hospitals of severe ARI. Laboratory testing of 30 nasal and throat swab specimens from ARI hospitalized cases at Deli Serdang Hospital, Wonosari Hospital and Kanudjoso Djati Hospital during August - September 2016. Laboratory testing were carried out at the Virology Laboratory of the Center for Biomedical Research and Development and Basic Health Technology. This research is a preliminary study using Fast-Track Diagnostics multiplex Real-time RT-PCR to detect 21 viruses. The viruses that have been detected are Human Metapneumovirus (21.2%), Human Parainfluenza Virus 1 (12.1%), Influenza B (6.1%), Human Coronavirus-OC43 (6.1%), Human CoronavirusNL63 (6.1%), Human Parainfluenza Virus 2 (3.0%), Human Rhinovirus (3.0%), and Human Adenovirus (3.0%). Of the 17 samples that tested positive for viruses, 14 of them were single cases of infection while the other three were cases of co-infection between Human Coronavirus-NL63 and Human Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human Metapneumovirus with Human Coronavirus-OC43, and Human Adenovirus with Human Rhinovirus. The most detected virus from ARI hospitalized cases are the Human Metapneumovirus.</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Infeksi saluran pernafasan akut (ISPA) merupakan penyakit menular yang menjadi penyebab utama 1 morbiditas dan mortalitas di dunia dan Indonesia. Informasi virus penyebab ISPA masih terbatas. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mendeteksi virus penyebab kasus ISPA rawat inap di tiga rumah sakit sentinel surveilans ISPA berat. Pemeriksaan pada 30 spesimen <em>swab</em> hidung dan tenggorok dari kasus ISPA rawat inap di RSUD Deli Serdang, RSUD Wonosari, dan RS Kanudjoso Djati selama bulan Agustus–September 2016. Pemeriksaan dilakukan di Laboratorium Virologi Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pendahuluan menggunakan <em>FastTrack Diagnostics multiplex Real-time</em> RT-PCR untuk mendeteksi 21 virus. Virus-virus yang berhasil dideteksi adalah <em>Human Metapneumovirus</em> (21,2%). <em>Human Parainfluenza Virus</em> 1 (12,1%), <em>Influenza</em> B (6,1%), <em>Human Coronavirus</em>-OC43 (6,1%), <em>Human Coronavirus</em>-NL63 (6,1%), <em>Human Parainfluenza Virus</em> 2 (3,0%), <em>Human Rhinovirus</em> (3,0%), dan <em>Human Adenovirus</em> (3,0%). Dari 17 sampel yang dinyatakan positif mengandung virus, 14 diantaranya merupakan kasus infeksi tunggal sedangkan tiga lainnya merupakan kas us koinfeksi antara <em>Human Coronavirus</em>-NL63 dengan <em>Human Parainfluenza Virus</em> 1, <em>Human Metapneumovirus</em> dengan <em>Human Coronavirus</em>-OC43, dan <em>Human Adenovirus</em> dengan <em>Human Rhinovirus</em>. Virus yang paling banyak terdeteksi dari spesimen kasus ISPA rawat inap adalah <em>Human Metapneumovirus</em>.</p> Vivi Setiawaty Maretra Anindya Puspaningrum Arie Ardiansyah Nugraha Daniel Joko Wahyono ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 4 257 262 Formulasi Krim Tabir Surya Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kersen (Muntingia calabura L.) untuk Kesehatan Kulit https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/524 <p><em>Sunlight has many health benefits, but high sun exposure can also cause skin problems ranging from&nbsp;</em><em>redness, inflammation, and the worst is triggering the appearance of skin cancer. One way to protect the&nbsp;</em><em>skin from the sun is by using a sunscreen. Kersen Leaf (Muntingia calabura L.) has a high total flavonoids&nbsp;</em><em>and total phenolic so that it can be used as a natural active ingredient for making sunscreen creams. The&nbsp;</em><em>purpose of this study was to formulate and evaluate sunscreen cream preparations with variations in the&nbsp;</em><em>concentration of ethanol extract of Kersen Leaf&nbsp; Muntingia calabura L.) and to know the SPF value. Extract&nbsp;</em><em>of kersen leaves (Muntingia calabura L.) using the maceration method with 70% ethanol. The extract was&nbsp;</em><em>concentrated using a rotary evaporator. Four formulas were made with variations in the concentration&nbsp;</em><em>of ethanol extract of kersen leaves. Formula 1 (cream base) without ethanolic extract of kersen leaves;&nbsp;</em><em>formula 2 with ethanol extract of 1 gram kersen leaves; formula 3 with ethanol extract of 2 grams kersen&nbsp;</em><em>leaves and formula 4 with ethanol extract of 3 grams kersen leaves. The four formulas were tested for&nbsp;</em><em>physical, chemical and SPF values. Testing the SPF value using spectrophotometric method. For sticky&nbsp;power does not meet standard because it is less than 4 seconds. The Formula 1 SPF value is 0.1149;&nbsp;</em><em>formula 2 is 7.6574 (extra protection); formula 3 is 13.7847 (maximum protection); and formula 4 is 19.0871&nbsp;</em><em>(ultra protection). The greater the concentration of ethanol extract of kersen leaves the greater the SPF&nbsp;</em><em>value. From the results of the study, it was found that the four formulas fulfilled the requirements of physical&nbsp;</em><em>and chemical characteristics, namely organoleptic, homogeneity, distribution, and viscosity, and had a&nbsp;</em><em>significant SPF values, namely formula 2, 3 and 4.</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Sinar matahari memiliki banyak manfaat bagi kesehatan, namun paparan sinar matahari yang tinggi juga&nbsp;dapat menyebabkan masalah kulit mulai dari kemerahan, peradangan, dan yang paling buruk adalah&nbsp;memicu munculnya kanker kulit. Salah satu cara untuk melindungi kulit dari sinar matahari yaitu dengan&nbsp;menggunakan tabir surya. Daun kersen (<em>Muntingia calabura</em> L.) mempunyai kandungan flavonoid total&nbsp;dan fenolik total yang tinggi sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan aktif alami untuk pembuatan&nbsp;krim tabir surya. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk melakukan formulasi dan evaluasi sediaan krim tabir surya&nbsp;dengan variasi konsentrasi ekstrak etanol daun kersen (<em>Muntingia calabura</em> L.) serta mengetahui nilai&nbsp;SPF-nya. Ekstraksi daun kersen menggunakan metode maserasi dengan pelarut etanol 70%. Ekstrak&nbsp;dipekatkan menggunakan <em>rotary evaporator</em>. Dibuat empat formula dengan variasi konsentrasi ekstrak&nbsp;etanol daun kersen. Formula 1 (basis krim) tanpa ekstrak etanol daun kersen; formula 2 dengan ekstrak&nbsp;etanol daun kersen 1 gram; formula 3 dengan ekstrak etanol daun kersen 2 gram; dan formula 4 dengan&nbsp;ekstrak etanol daun kersen 3 gram. Keempat formula diuji karakteristik sifat fisika, kimia dan nilai SPFnya.&nbsp;Pengujian nilai SPF menggunakan metode spektrofotometri. Untuk daya lekat belum memenuhi&nbsp;standar karena kurang dari empat detik. Nilai SPF Formula 1 sebesar 0,1149; formula 2 sebesar 7,6574&nbsp;(proteksi ekstra); formula 3 sebesar 13,7847 (proteksi maksimal); dan formula 4 sebesar 19,0871 (proteksi&nbsp;ultra). Semakin besar konsentrasi ekstrak etanol daun kersen semakin besar nilai SPF-nya. Dari hasil&nbsp;penelitian diperoleh bahwa keempat formula memenuhi persyaratan karakteristik sifat fisika dan kimia&nbsp;yaitu organoleptis, homogenitas, daya sebar pH, dan viskositas, serta memiliki nilai SPF yang bermakna&nbsp;yaitu formula 2, 3, dan 4.</p> Anita Dwi Puspitasari Dewi Andini Kunti Mulangsri Herlina Herlina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 4 263 270 10.22435/mpk.v28i4.524 Pelayanan Manajemen Terpadu Balita Sakit (MTBS) pada Puskesmas di Regional Timur Indonesia https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/125 <p><em>The decline in under-five mortality remains target of health development in Indonesia. One effort that can&nbsp;</em><em>be done, among others, is to improve the skills of health workers in dealing with sick children through the&nbsp;</em><em>Integrated management of Chilhood Illness (IMCI). This study aims to evaluate the implementation of&nbsp;</em><em>IMCI in 10 selected districts/cities in Eastern Region of Indonesia with a sample of 20 puskesmas selected&nbsp;</em><em>randomly. In total 40 under-five children were observed when receiving IMCI services at the puskesmas. In&nbsp;</em><em>addition, an assessment of the completeness of filling out of 200 forms of IMCI under-five children who had&nbsp;come to the puskesmas a week before the survey was conducted. Information related to the availability&nbsp;</em><em>of equipment to support IMCI services is collected through direct observation in 20 selected puskesmas&nbsp;</em><em>assisted by a check list form. The results showed that 80% of puskesmas in the eastern region have&nbsp;</em><em>implemented IMCI, but only 25% of puskesmas reaching all the under-five children. As many as 90% of&nbsp;</em><em>puskesmas have been trained for IMCI, however only 15% have been monitored post training. Only 25%&nbsp;</em><em>of puskesmas received supervision from the District Health Office in implementing IMCI. The observation&nbsp;</em><em>results at the IMCI service for children under five showed that, the lowest score for compliance with IMCI&nbsp;</em><em>was counseling (25.8%) and the highest was diarrhea assessment (73.8%). The results of observing&nbsp;</em><em>the IMCI forms showed that the lowest score was feeding practice (30.4%) and repeat visits (30.8%).&nbsp;</em><em>Meanwhile, oral rehydration facilities for diarrhea are reported to be inadequate, because they are only&nbsp;</em><em>available at 50% of puskesmas. There needs to be monitoring and supervision of officer compliance and&nbsp;</em><em>increasing the availability of supporting equipment and facilities/insfrastructure in the implementation of&nbsp;</em><em>IMCI.</em></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Penurunan angka kematian balita masih menjadi target pembangunan kesehatan di Indonesia. Salah satu&nbsp;upaya yang dapat dilakukan antara lain meningkatkan keterampilan tenaga kesehatan dalam menangani&nbsp;balita sakit, melalui pendekatan Manajemen Terpadu Balita Sakit (MTBS). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk&nbsp;mengevaluasi pelaksanaan MTBS di 10 Kabupaten/Kota terpilih di regional timur, dengan jumlah sampel 20 puskesmas yang dipilih secara acak. Secara total, 40 pasien balita diobservasi pada saat mendapatkan&nbsp;pelayanan MTBS di puskesmas. Selain itu, dilakukan asesmen kelengkapan pengisian dari 200 formulir&nbsp;MTBS balita yang pernah datang ke puskesmas dalam kurun waktu seminggu sebelum survei. Infomasi&nbsp;terkait dengan ketersediaan peralatan untuk mendukung pelayanan MTBS dikumpulkan melalui observasi&nbsp;secara langsung di 20 puskesmas terpilih dibantu dengan formulir <em>check list</em>. Hasil analisis menunjukkan&nbsp;bahwa 80% puskesmas di regional timur telah melaksanakan MTBS, namun hanya 25% puskesmas&nbsp;yang menjangkau seluruh balita. Sebesar 90% puskesmas telah terlatih MTBS, namun hanya 15% yang&nbsp;dilakukan <em>monitoring</em> pasca pelatihan. Hanya 25% puskesmas yang mendapatkan supervisi dari Dinas&nbsp;Kesehatan Kabupaten/Kota dalam pelaksanaan MTBS. Hasil observasi pada saat pelayanan MTBS pada balita menunjukkan, skor kepatuhan pelaksanaan MTBS yang terendah adalah konseling (25,8%) dan&nbsp;tertinggi adalah asesmen diare (73,8%). Hasil observasi pengisian formulir MTBS menunjukkan, skor&nbsp;terendah pada pengisian pemberian makan (30,4%) dan kunjungan ulang (30,8%). Sementara itu, fasilitas&nbsp;rehidrasi oral untuk diare dilaporkan belum memadai, karena hanya tersedia di 50% puskesmas. Perlu&nbsp;adanya monitoring dan supervisi terhadap kepatuhan petugas serta peningkatan ketersediaan peralatan&nbsp;dan sarana/prasarana pendukung dalam pelaksanaan MTBS.&nbsp;</p> Suparmi Suparmi Iram Barida Maisya Anissa Rizkianti Kencana Sari Bunga Christitha Rosha Nurillah Amaliah Joko Pambudi Yuana Wiryawan Gurendro Putro Noor Edi Widya Soekotjo Lovely Daisy Mayang Sari ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 4 271 278 10.22435/mpk.v28i4.125 Indeks Entomologi dan Sebaran Vektor Demam Berdarah Dengue di Provinsi Maluku Utara Tahun 2015 https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/242 <p><em>One effort in controlling the Aedes aegypti mosquito is to find out the breeding place. Until now it is known&nbsp;that the breeding sites of Aedes aegypti are found in urban areas, therefore the purpose of this study is&nbsp;to determine the&nbsp; potential for breeding of Aedes aegypti mosquito and entomology index in urban areas.&nbsp;The study was conducted in 2015 using a cross-sectional method. The results showed that the container&nbsp;with positively Aedes aegypti larvae was found in all three districts, Ternate at 29.6%, Tidore Kepulauan at&nbsp;28.5% and East Halmahera at 29.0%. The entomology index of Container Index (CI) was (29.5%), House&nbsp;Index (HI) was 35.3% and Breteau Index (BI) was 69.2%, while larva free number was 64.7%. From the&nbsp;results of this study, it was concluded that Aedes aegypti larvae mostly found in bathtub inside the house.&nbsp;Tubs and plastic buckets were the type of container that were found with most positively larvae. The&nbsp;average ldengue vector arvae density based on CI, HI and BI (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) in the&nbsp;three districts / cities in North Maluku Province scale was 5-8 and included in the medium risk category.&nbsp;This showed that the entomology index in the North Maluku region was still low. Monitoring of the spread&nbsp;of mosquito breeding sites in all parts of Indonesia is still needed to reduce cases of Dengue Hemorrhagic&nbsp;Fever (DHF).</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Salah satu upaya dalam pengendalian nyamuk <em>Aedes aegypti</em> adalah dengan mengetahui tempat&nbsp;perkembangbiakannya. Hingga saat ini diketahui bahwa tempat perkembangbiakan <em>Aedes aegypti&nbsp;</em>banyak ditemukan di daerah perkotaan, oleh sebab itu tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui&nbsp;potensi perkembangbiakan nyamuk <em>Aedes aegypti</em> dan indeks entomologi di daerah perkotaan. Penelitian&nbsp;dilakukan pada tahun 2015 dengan menggunakan metode potong lintang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa&nbsp;kontainer dengan positif jentik <em>Aedes aegypti</em> ditemukan di ketiga kabupaten yaitu Ternate sebesar 29,6%,&nbsp;Tidore Kepulauan sebesar 28,5%, dan Halmahera Timur sebesar 29,0%. Indeks entomologi&nbsp;<em>Container&nbsp;</em><em>Index</em> (CI) sebesar (29,5%), <em>House Index</em> (HI) sebesar 35,3% dan <em>Breteau Index</em> (BI) sebesar 69,2%,&nbsp;sedangkan Angka Bebas Jentik sebesar 64,7%. Dari hasil penelitian ini didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa&nbsp;bak mandi yang berada di dalam rumah paling banyak ditemukan jentik <em>Aedes aegypti</em>. Jenis kontainer&nbsp;yang paling banyak ditemukan positif jentik yaitu pada bak mandi dan ember plastik. Rata-rata kepadatan&nbsp;jentik vektor dengue (<em>Aedes aegypti</em> dan <em>Aedes albopictus</em>) berbasis CI, HI, dan BI di ketiga kabupaten/kota di Provinsi Maluku Utara skala 5-8 dan termasuk dalam kategori risiko sedang. Hal ini menunjukkan&nbsp;bahwa indeks entomologi di wilayah Maluku Utara masih rendah, sehingga masih diperlukan pemantauan&nbsp;sebaran tempat perkembangbiakan nyamuk di seluruh wilayah Indonesia untuk mengurangi kasus Demam&nbsp;Berdarah Dengue (DBD).</p> Dian Perwitasari Roy Nusa RES Jusniar Ariati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 4 279 288 10.22435/mpk.v28i4.242 Hubungan antara Pengetahuan Responden yang Pernah Menderita Hepatitis tentang Perilaku Penularan Hepatitis C dengan Antibodi Anti Hepatitis C (Titer Anti-HCV) di Indonesia https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/632 <p><em>Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a viral disease that becomes the world’s second problem after hepatitis B virus&nbsp;</em><em>disease. The prevalence of HCV 3% or about 130-170 million people in the world are infected with HCV.&nbsp;</em><em>In most developed countries the prevalence is below 1%, but in Asian countries the prevalence is higher.&nbsp;</em><em>The aim of this study was to find the relationship between hepatitis C immunity (anti-HCV titre) behavior&nbsp;</em><em>from the Riskesdas 2007. Data was a cross-sectional study, by analyzing anti-HCV titre data and data on&nbsp;</em><em>age, gender and behavioral variables (use of needles injections, use of razors, condom use and sexual&nbsp;</em><em>behavior). The total number of respondents who were tested for antibodies was 20,648. The reseach was&nbsp;</em><em>done in March – October 2014. The results of the study of behavioral variables (using a shared razor, using&nbsp;</em><em>condoms during sex and changing partners) had no significant association with anti hepatitis C antibody&nbsp;</em><em>titers, while the age variable and syringe use variables had a significant correlation with p = 0.001. The&nbsp;</em><em>conclusion of this study was that there was no significant relationship between treatment (shared razor&nbsp;</em><em>use, condom use and changing sex partners) between people who had hepatitis C and anti hepatitis C&nbsp;</em><em>antibody titers.</em></p> <p><strong>Abstrak</strong></p> <p>Virus Hepatitis C (HCV) merupakan penyakit virus yang menjadi masalah kedua dunia setelah penyakit&nbsp;virus hepatitis B. Prevalensi HCV 3% atau sekitar 130-170 juta orang di dunia terinfeksi HCV. Di sebagian&nbsp;besar negara maju prevalensi di bawah 1%, tetapi di negara-negara Asia prevalensinya lebih tinggi. Tujuan&nbsp;dari penelitian ini untuk mencari hubungan antara pengetahuan responden tentang perilaku penularan&nbsp;hepatitis C dengan kekebalan hepatitis C (titer anti-HCV) dari data Riskesdas 2007. Desain penelitian&nbsp;<em>cross-sectional</em>, dengan menganalisis data titer anti-HCV dan data variabel umur, jenis kelamin dan variabel&nbsp;pengetahuan tentang perilaku (penggunaan jarum suntik, penggunaan pisau cukur, pemakaian kondom,&nbsp;dan perilaku seksual). Total responden yang diperiksa antibodi sebanyak 20.648. Waktu penelitian dilakukan&nbsp;pada bulan Maret sampai Oktober 2014. Hasil penelitian variabel perilaku (penggunaan pisau cukur&nbsp;bersama, menggunakan kondom saat berhubungan seks dan berganti pasangan) tidak ada hubungan&nbsp;yang bermakna dengan titer antibodi anti hepatitis C, sedangkan variabel umur dan variabel penggunaan&nbsp;jarum suntik terdapat hubungan yang bermakna dengan nilai p=0,001. Kesimpulan penelitian ini tidak ada&nbsp;hubungan yang bermakna antara perilaku (penggunaan pisau cukur bersama sama, penggunaan kondom&nbsp;dan berganti ganti pasangan seks) antara orang-orang yang pernah menderita hepatitis C dengan titer&nbsp;antibodi anti hepatitis C.</p> Noer Endah Pracoyo Wibowo Wibowo Raflizar Raflizar Felly Philipus Senewe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 28 4 289 294 10.22435/mpk.v28i4.632 Back Matter Media Vol 28 No 4 https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/1086 Sekretariat Media ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 28 4 Full Article Media Vol 28 No 4 https://ejournal2.litbang.kemkes.go.id/index.php/mpk/article/view/1084 Sekretariat Media ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-01 2019-01-01 28 4