POTENSI TRIATOMA SP DALAM PENYEBARAN PENYAKIT TULAR VEKTOR EMERGING DI INDONESIA

  • Risqa Novita
Keywords: Parasite emerging, Triatoma sp in Southeast asia, Vector borne diseases

Abstract

The era of globalization allows migration fastly, so we do not have boundary of a country. This led to an increase of the infectious diseases. Indonesia also have an impact on this globalization by highly migration. Indonesia is a tropical country and has diversity of vectors that can transmit various tropical diseases. One of a vector  which transmitted vector borne diseases is a bug Triatoma. Triatoma lives near the people’s house and in the bed. One of the species of Triatoma which found in indonesia is Triatoma rubrifasciata which is vector of Chagas disease and Leprosy and can cause allergic reaction of the skin after the bite. Triatoma infection in Southeast Asia, including in Indonesia has not been widely reported. This condition should make us to be alert on the disease emerging or re emerging diseases that can be caused by Triatoma . This article aims to study Triatoma as a vector of emerging and potentially re emerging diseases in Indonesia, which are Chagas, skin allergic reaction after bite and Leprosy. Methods. Literature review by look in google scholar and pubmed, by search using keywords: emerging parasitic, vector borne diseases, Triatoma in Southeast Asia. Inclusion criterias are research articles, laboratory research, case report, and systematic surveillance. Based on the literatures, tracing data that Indonesia has a chance to be  the cases of Chagas disease, Skin allergic reaction of Triatoma and Leprosy. It is supposed to made the vigilance on  make a early warning system, so our public health coud be achieved highest.

References

Alias, S.N. et al., 2014. Epidemiology of blood parasitic infections in the urban rat population in peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Biomedicine, 31(2), pp.230–240.
Centre, T.A. et al., 1985. Draught Animal Power For Production Proceedings of an international workshop held at. , (10), pp.10–16.
Conlan, J. V. et al., 2011. A review of parasitic zoonoses in a changing Southeast Asia. Veterinary Parasitology, 182(1), pp.22–40. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.07.013.
Desquesnes, M., Holzmuller, P., et al., 2013. Trypanosoma evansi and Surra: A Review and Perspectives on Origin, History, Distribution, Taxonomy, Morphology, Hosts, and Pathogenic Effects\nMarc Desquesnes,1,2 Philippe Holzmuller,1 De-Hua Lai,3 Alan Dargantes,4 Zhao-Rong Lun,3 and Sathaporn Jittaplapo. BioMed research international, 2013, pp.1–22.
Desquesnes, M., Dargantes, A., et al., 2013. Trypanosoma evansi and surra: A review and perspectives on transmission, epidemiology and control, impact, and zoonotic aspects. BioMed Research International, 2013.
Estrada-Franco, J.G. et al., 2006. Human Trypanosoma cruzi infection and seropositivity in dogs, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(4), pp.624–630.
Githeko, A.K. et al., 2000. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: A regional analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(9), pp.1136–1147.
Harris, E. et al., 1996. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei spp. in human blood by a nonradioactive branched DNA-based technique. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 34(10), pp.2401–2407.
Herlihy, N. et al., 2016. Climate change and human health: What are the research trends? A scoping review protocol. BMJ Open, 6(12).
Hotez, P.J. et al., 2015. Neglected Tropical Diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Overview and Update. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9(4), pp.1–15.
Jiang, J. et al., 2006. Rickettsia felis in Xenopsylla cheopis, Java, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 12(8), pp.1281–1283.
Joshi, P.P. et al., 2005. Human trypanosomiasis causes by trypanosoma evansi in India: the first case report. The american journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 73(3), pp.491–495.
Medeiros, J.F. et al., 2015. A field trial of a PCR-based Mansonella ozzardi diagnosis assay detects high-levels of submicroscopic M . ozzardi infections in both venous blood samples and FTA ® card dried blood spots. Parasites & Vectors, pp.1–8. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-0889-z.
Osorio, L. et al., 2018. A scoping review on the field validation and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests for vector-borne and other infectious diseases of poverty in urban areas. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 7(1), p.87. Available at: https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249-018-0474-8.
Parham, P. et al., 2015. The impact of climate change on the geographical distribution of two vectors of Chagas disease : implications for the force of infection The impact of climate change on the geographical distribution of two vectors of Chagas disease : implications for the . , (July).
Powar, R. et al., 2006. A rare case of human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma Evansi. Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, 24(1), p.72. Available at: http://www.ijmm.org/text.asp?2006/24/1/72/19904.
Rodríguez Carnero, P. et al., 2017. Unexpected hosts: imaging parasitic diseases. Insights into Imaging, 8(1), pp.101–125. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13244-016-0525-2.
Sarataphan, N. et al., 2007. Diagnosis of a Trypanosoma lewisi-like (Herpetosoma) infection in a sick infant from Thailand. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 56(8), pp.1118–1121.
Shegokar, V.R. et al., 2006. Short report: Human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in a village in India: Preliminary serologic survey of the local population. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 75(5), pp.869–870.
Siti Shafiyyah, C.O. et al., 2012. Prevalence of intestinal and blood parasites among wild rats in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Tropical Biomedicine, 29(4), pp.544–550.
Stijlemans, B. et al., 2017. Nanobodies As tools to Understand, diagnose, and treat African trypanosomiasis. Frontiers in Immunology, 8(JUN), pp.1–12.
Tapia-Garay, V. et al., 2018. Assessing the risk zones of chagas’ disease in chile, in a world marked by global climatic change. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 113(1), pp.24–29.
Thao, N.P. et al., 2014. Secondary metabolites from vietnamese marine invertebrates with activity against trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi. Molecules, 19(6), pp.7869–7880.
Torgerson, P.R. et al., 2015. World Health Organization Estimates of the Global and Regional Disease Burden of 11 Foodborne Parasitic Diseases, 2010: A Data Synthesis. PLoS Medicine, 12(12), pp.1–22.
Truc, P. et al., 2013. Atypical Human Infections by Animal Trypanosomes. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 7(9).
Vaidian, A.K., Weiss, L.M. & Tanowitz, H.B., 2004. Kinetoplastid Biology and Disease. Kinetoplastid Biology and Disease, 3, pp.1–6.
Verma, A. et al., 2011. Case report: Trypanosoma lewisi or T. lewisi-like infection in a 37-day-old Indian infant. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 85(2), pp.221–224.
Verner, G. et al., 2016. Health in climate change research from 1990 to 2014: positive trend, but still underperforming. Global Health Action, 9(1), p.30723. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/gha.v9.30723.
Van Vinh Chau, N. et al., 2016. A Clinical and Epidemiological Investigation of the First Reported Human Infection With the Zoonotic Parasite Trypanosoma evansi in Southeast Asia. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 62(8), pp.1002–1008.
Williams, J.E. et al., 1980. Plague in Central Java, Indonesia. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 58(3), pp.459–468.
Published
2019-10-31