LEPTOSPIROSIS CASE FINDING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF LEPTOSPIROSIS SURVEILLANCE IN SEMARANG CITY, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA

(Penemuan Kasus Leptospirosis Dalam PengembanganSurveilans Leptospirosis Di Kota Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia)

  • Ristiyanto Ristiyanto Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit
  • Farida Dwi Handayani Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit Salatiga
  • Arief Mulyono Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit Salatiga
  • Arum Sih Joharina Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit Salatiga
  • Tri Wibawa Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Setyawan Budiharta Department of Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Setyawan Budiharta Department of Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Supargiono Supargiono Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada
Keywords: Leptospirosis, Surveillance, Case finding, Endemic, Detection

Abstract

Leptospirosis is primarily a disease of wild and domestic animals, and may be transmitted to humans through direct or indirect contact with infected animal urine. Leptospirosis is endemic in part of Indonesia territory. This work aimed to find the leptospirosis cases in Semarang city, one of the endemic leptospirosis in Indonesia by active and passive case finding. The leptospirosis were screened in the community base active case finding and passive case finding in primary health care center and hospitals, by using modified WHO-SEARO criteria and laboratory confirmation test. There were 191 cases detected with modified WHO-SEARO criteria, and among those cases only 31 cases confirmed by laboratory test, either by using Rapid Detection Test (RDT), Microscopic Agglutinations Test (MAT) or Polymerase chained reaction (PCR). It was found that leptospirosis was not correlated with rainfall season. Fever, headache and myalgia were the most common symptoms experienced by >90% patients. Active case finding add no more than 7% probable leptospirosis and 14% confirmed cases to the traditional passive case finding.  It was conclude that leptospirosis case finding is still challenging in the endemic area, such as Semarang city. The application of modified WHO-SEARO criteria as diagnostic tool may be needed to be further evaluated.

 

Keywords: Leptospirosis, Surveillance,  Case finding,  Endemic, Detection 

Author Biography

Ristiyanto Ristiyanto, Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit

Biologi Lingkungan

References

Barcellos C & Sabroza PC, 2001. The place behind the case: leptospirosis risks and associated environmental conditions in a flood-related outbreak in Rio de Janeiro. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 17(suppl), pp.S59–S67. Available at: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2001000700014&lng=en&tlng=en.
Bhatia M, Umapathy B & Navaneeth B, 2015. Evaluation of diagnostic utility of modified Faine’s criteria in leptospirosis- experience from a tertiary care hospital. National Journal of Integrated Research in Medicine, 6(4), pp.20–26.
Chaudhry R, Das a, Premlatha MM, Choudhary a, Chourasia BK, Chandel DS, et al., 2013. Serological & molecular approaches for diagnosis of leptospirosis in a tertiary care hospital in north India: a 10-year study. The Indian journal of medical research, 137(4), pp.785–90. Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=3724261&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract.
Gasem MH, Wagenaar JFP, Goris MG a, Adi MS, Isbandrio BB, Hartskeerl R a., et al., 2009. Murine typhus and leptospirosis as causes of acute undifferentiated fever, Indonesia. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 15(6), pp.975–977.
Kamath R, Swain S, Pattanshetty S & Nair NS, 2014. Studying Risk Factors Associated with Human Leptospirosis. Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, 6(1), pp.3–9. Available at: http://www.jgid.org/text.asp?2014/6/1/3/127941.
Katsz A, Buchholz AE, Hinson ER, Park SY & Effler P V., 2011. Leptospirosis in Hawaii, USA, 1999–2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(2), pp.221–226.
Keenan J, Sharma R, Dicker R, Rayner J & Stone D, 2009. Seroprevalence of Leptospira in in Grenada, West Indies. The West Indian Medical Journal, 58(2), pp.114–7. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21866595.
Kumar S, 2013. Indian Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Human Leptospirosis. API Medicine Update, 23(2004), pp.23–29. Available at: http://apiindia.org/medicine_update_2013/chap07.pdf.
Setyorini L & Dangiran HL, 2017. Analisis Pola Persebaran Penyakit Leptospirosis Di Kota Semarang Tahun 2014 – 2016. , 5.
Singh & Vijayachari P, 2012. Leptospirosis: Clinical Spectrum and Case management, Port Blair: Regional Medical research Centre, ICMR. Dept.of Health Research.
Sumanta H, Wibawa T, Hadisusanto S, Nuryati A & Kusnanto H, 2015. Spatial Analysis of Leptospira in Rats , Water and Soil in Bantul District Yogyakarta Indonesia. open Journal fo Epidemiology, 5(February), pp.22–31.
WHO, 2003. Human leptospirosis: guidance for diagnosis, surveillance and control, Geneva: WHO.
WHO, 2009. Leptospirosis situation in the WHO South-East Asia Region. World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia, pp.1–7. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241547871_eng.pdf.
WHO & UNAIDS, 1999. WHO Recommended Surveillance Standards Second edi., Geneva: WHO.
Published
2018-10-31
How to Cite
Ristiyanto, R., Handayani, F., Mulyono, A., Joharina, A., Wibawa, T., Budiharta, S., Budiharta, S., & Supargiono, S. (2018). LEPTOSPIROSIS CASE FINDING FOR DEVELOPMENT OF LEPTOSPIROSIS SURVEILLANCE IN SEMARANG CITY, CENTRAL JAVA, INDONESIA. Vektora : Jurnal Vektor Dan Reservoir Penyakit, 10(2), 111-118. https://doi.org/10.22435/vk.v10i2.284

Most read articles by the same author(s)