• Ratih Dian Saraswati Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan
  • Risqa Novita Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan
Keywords: vaksin flu burung, H5N1, sistem kekebalan tubuh, Indonesia


A total of 182 human cases of avian influenza have been reported in Indonesia in the period 2004-2011, with a case fatality rate (CFR) among them of 86%. Various risk factors for avian influenza transmission have also been identified, including a high population, having many types of poultry (broiler, layer, village chickens, etc), traditional poultry systems that promote close human relationships, and the presence of several areas in Indonesia which are strategic locations as a place to rest and meet various wild birds. Vaccination is one of the efforts to prevent the re-emergence of H5N1 avian influenza transmission. However, the avian influenza vaccine for the public is not yet available in Indonesia. The purpose of this review article is to examine the avian influenza vaccine in humans as a preventive measure against the re-emergence of avian influenza in Indonesia, and to determine the progress of developing avian influenza vaccines. The results of the review show that several avian influenza vaccine candidates have been approved by WHO, one of which is a vaccine candidate using an isolated virus from Indonesia. This information on the development of avian influenza vaccines for humans is useful and can be used as an avian influenza pre-pandemic preparedness in Indonesia.


Sebanyak 182 kasus flu burung pada manusia telah dilaporkan di Indonesia pada periode tahun 2004-2011, dengan case fatality rate (CFR) sebesar 86%. Berbagai faktor risiko penularan flu burung juga telah diidentifikasi, antara lain jumlah penduduk yang tinggi, memiliki banyak jenis unggas (ayam broiler, layer, kampong, dsb), sistem perunggasan tradisional yang membuat kedekatan hubungan antara manusia, dan adanya beberpa wilayah di Indonesia yang menjadi lokasi strategis sebagai tempat istirahat dan bertemunya berbagai unggas liar. Vaksinasi merupakan salah satu upaya untuk mencegah munculnya kembali penularan flu burung H5N1. Namun demikian, vaksin flu burung untuk masyarakat belum tersedia hingga saat ini. Tujuan dari review artikel ini adalah untuk mengkaji  vaksin flu burung pada manusia sebagai tindakan pencegahan terhadap kemunculan kembali flu burung di Indonesia, dan untuk mengetahui kemajuan pengembangan vaksin flu burung. Hasil review menunjukkan beberapa kandidat vaksin flu burung telah disetujui oleh WHO, salah satunya adalah kandidat vaksin menggunakan isolat virus asal Indonesia. Informasi perkembangan vaksin flu burung bagi manusia ini bermanfaat dan dapat digunakan sebagai kesiapsiagaan prepandemi flu burung di Indonesia.


Abdel N, Tawee C, Zhanceng G, Frederick G, Santoso S, Concepts, C, 2008. Update on Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection in Humans. N Engl J Med.358,261–273.
Altenburg, A. F, Joost H.C.M., M. Kreijtz, Rory D.V., Fei S., Robert F., Gaus F.R., Gerd S and Asisa, 2014. Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) as Production Platform for Vaccines against Influenza and Other Viral Respiratory Diseases. Viruses. 6, 2735–2761.
Anonimus, 2021. Antigenic and genetic characteristics of zoonotic influenza A viruses and development of candidate vaccine viruses for pandemic preparedness, World Health Organization.1–15.
Anonimus, 2007. Recommendations and laboratory procedures for detection of avian influenza A (H5N1) virus in specimens from suspected human cases 1. World Health Organization. 1–28.
Anonimus, 2011. Cumulative number of confirmed human cases for avian influenza A ( H5N1 ) reported to WHO , 2003-2011. WHO.
Anonimus,2021.H5N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine , manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur , Inc . Questions and Answers Questions about H5N1 Influenza Virus and Vaccine. Sanofi.
Baz Mariana, Catherine J Luke, Xing C., and Kanto S., 2014. H5N1 vaccines in humans. 2013.178(1), 1–49.
Cattoli, G. et al., 2011. Evidence for differing evolutionary dynamics of A/H5N1 viruses among countries applying or not applying avian influenza vaccination in poultry. Vaccine. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.09.127.
Chen, W., Jackson, Kathryn M.E, 2016. Persistence of Antibody to Influenza A / H5N1 Vaccine Virus : Impact of AS03 Adjuvant. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology.23,73–77.
Clegg, C. H., Rininger, J. A. and Baldwin, S. L., 2018. Clinical vaccine development for H5N1 influenza. Expert Rev Vaccines. 12,767–777.
Crevar, C. J., Donald M.C., Kevin Y., Ted M.R., 2015. Cocktail of H5N1 COBRA HA vaccines elicit protective antibodies against H5N1 viruses from multiple clades. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 11,572–583.
Farnsworth, M. L. et al., 2011. Metapopulation dynamics and determinants of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreaks in Indonesian poultry. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. doi: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.07.008.
Feng, J. Q., William K.D., 2012. Evaluations for In Vitro Correlates of Immunogenicity of Inactivated Influenza A H5 , H7 and H9 Vaccines in Human. PLOS ONE.7(12), 1–13.
Horimoto, T. and Kawaoka, Y., 2006. Strategies for developing vaccines against H5N1 influenza A viruses. Trends in Molecular Medicine. 12(11), 509-514
Hsieh, Y., Tsung W, Ding P.L, Chun Y.L., 2006. Influenza Pandemics : Past , Present and Future. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 105(1), 1–6.
Rory D. de Vries, Sander Herist, Mathilde Richard, 2018. Avian Influenza A Virus Pandemic Preparedness and Vaccine Development. 6;1–16.
Kalthoff, D., Globig, A. and Beer, M., 2010. Highly pathogenic avian influenza as a zoonotic agent. Veterinary Microbiology. 140,237-245.
Kerkhove, M. D. Van, Elizabeth M., Anthony W., Joseph B., Joachim O.,2011. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza ( H5N1 ): Pathways of Exposure at the Animal-Human Interface , a Systematic Review. PLOS ONE.6(1), 1–8
Khurana, S., Nitin V, Donald M.C., Ted M.R., Hana G., 2011. Bacterial HA1 vaccine against pandemic H5N1 influenza virus: evidence of oligomerization, hemagglutination, and cross-protective immunity in ferrets. Journal of virology. 85(3),1246–1256.
Koutsakos, M., Kedzierska, K. and Alerts, E., 2020. Immune Responses to Avian Influenza Viruses. the Journal of Immunology.202,382-391
Krammer, F. and Palese, P., 2015. Advances in the development of influenza virus vaccines. Nature. 14, 167–182.
Lazarus, R. et al., 2016). Antibody Persistence and Booster Responses to Split-Virion H5N1 Avian Influenza Vaccine in Young and Elderly Adults. PLOS ONE.11,1–13.
Morens, D. M., Subbarao, K. and Taubenberger, J. K., 2012. Engineering H5N1 avian influenza viruses to study human adaptation. Nature. 486,335-340.
Novita, R.,2017. Implementasi kebijakan pengandangan unggas untuk mencegah avian influenza di masyarakat Kabupaten Bogor. Tesis.Universitas Padjadjaran. 39–41.
Oshansky, C. M., James Z., Karen B., Corrina P., Amy W., 2018. Safety and immunogenicity of influenza A ( H5N1 ) vaccine stored up to twelve years in the National Pre-Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Stockpile. Vaccine. 30,1–9.
Paul, M., Wongnarkpet,P., Gasqui, 2011. Risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 infection in backyard chicken farms, Thailand. Acta Tropica.10,11-17 doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2011.03.009.
Pawestri, H. A., Nugraha, A. A.,2020. Genetic and antigenic characterization of influenza A / H5N1 viruses isolated from patients in Indonesia , 2008 – 2015. Virus Genes.56(4), 417–429.
Pawestri, H. A., Eggink, D.,2020. Viral Factors Associated With the High Mortality Related to Human Infections With Clade 2 . 1 Influenza A / H5N1 Virus in Indonesia. Clinical Infectious Diseases.70(6),1139–1146.
Pitisuttithum, P., Udomsak S, Larisa R, Erin S, Martin F., Marie P.K., 2017.Safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated influenza H5 candidate vaccine strain A / 17 / turkey / Turkey / 05 / 133 H5N2 and its priming effects for potential pre-pandemic use : a randomised , double-blind , placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 1–10.
Pongcharoensuk, P., Wiku A., Lilis M., Le Mini S., Richard C., 2012. Avian and pandemic human influenza policy in South-East Asia: The interface between economic and public health imperatives’, Health Policy and Planning. 27,374-283
Rimmelzwaan, G. F. and Katz, J. M., 2013. Immune responses to infection with H5N1 influenza virus. Virus Research. 30,1–9.
Sedyaningsih, E. R. et al., 2007. Epidemiology of Cases of H5N1 Virus Infection in Indonesia, July 2005–June 2006. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. doi: 10.1086/519692.
Sendow, I. and Abdul, R. M., 2011. Infection Status of Influenza A Virus in some Animal Species before Poultry Avian Influenza H5N1 Outbreak in Indonesia. Berita Biologi.10,431–440.
Smith, L. R. et al., 2010. Phase 1 clinical trials of the safety and immunogenicity of adjuvanted plasmid DNA vaccines encoding influenza A virus H5 hemagglutinin. Vaccine. 28(13),2565–2572.
Sun, X., Joanna A., Taronna M., Terrence M., 2018. pp. Stockpiled pre-pandemic H5N1 influenza virus vaccines with AS03 adjuvant provide cross-protection from H5N2 clade virus challenge in ferrets. Virology.508, 4–169.
Tambyah, P. A. et al., 2012. Safety and immunogenicity of two different doses of a Vero cell-derived , whole virus clade 2 H5N1 ( A / Indonesia / 05 / 2005 ) influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 30(2), pp. 329–335.
Winokur, P. L. et al., 2015. Safety and Immunogenicity of a Single Low Dose or High Dose of Clade 2 In fl uenza A ( H5N1 ) Inactivated Vaccine in Adults Previously Primed With Clade 1 In fl uenza A ( H5N1 ). Vaccine. 212. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv087.
How to Cite
Saraswati, R., & Novita, R. (2021). VAKSIN FLU BURUNG DI MANUSIA SEBAGAI UPAYA ALTERNATIF PENCEGAHAN TERHADAP RE-EMERGING VIRUS H5N1. Vektora : Jurnal Vektor Dan Reservoir Penyakit, 13(1), 35-44.